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Automated Monitoring and Control

Moving to a smart grid requires advancements to the way we monitor & control energy.
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DIMENSION 1: AUTOMATED MONITORING AND CONTROL

Monitoring and control encompass the methodologies, systems, and technologies employed for the oversight and management of network systems, devices, and equipment. These essential practices are integral to safeguarding the safety, efficiency, and reliability of network operations. Monitoring serves to provide real-time insights into system behavior, while control empowers operators to undertake requisite actions, effective adjustments, and automate processes, thereby ensuring the secure and efficient operation of networks. These practices notably important within the domains of power generation, transmission, and distribution.

1 (A). UTILIZATION OF SCADA

Since 2006, TNB has deploy Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) projects within our 11kV distribution substations. These initiatives are instrumental in achieving our objective of enhancing the availability and reliability of the distribution network system through real-time monitoring and control of field equipment. Such efforts are pivotal in our commitment to the establishment of a Smarter Grid and the acceleration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER).

With the use of SCADA technology, Advance Distribution Management System (ADMS) and Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) installed at substations, TNB Control Centers are now able to obtain real-time data monitoring and control of network assets, thus enabling quick identification of fault location and informed-decision making to restore supply within a short period of time. A control center is equipped with various capabilities and tools such as:

1. Real-Time Monitoring

The control center continuously monitors the status of the distribution network in real-time. This includes monitoring voltage levels, current flows, equipment status and power quality.

2. Data Acquisition and Analysis

It collects and analyzes data from various sensors and intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) located throughout the distribution network.

3. Alarms and Event Management

The control center receives alarms and events triggered by sensors and IEDs.

4. Remote Control

Operators can remotely control various components of the distribution network, including switches, circuit breakers and reclosers. This capability allows for the isolation of faults and the restoration of services in a shorter time frame as compared to manual switching at site.

5. Load Management

The control center can balance loads within the network to prevent overloading and reduce inefficiencies. It may include load shedding capabilities to maintain grid stability during peak demand.

6. Outage Management

The control center helps in identifying the location and cause of outages, allowing for quicker response and restoration efforts. It can also estimate the number of affected customers.

7. Asset Management

It assists in monitoring the condition of distribution network assets and helps schedule maintenance activities to prevent equipment failures.

8. Network Reconfiguration

The control center can reconfigure the network by opening or closing switches to optimize power distribution, reduce losses, and enhance reliability.

9. Integration with DERs

As more Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) are integrated into distribution networks, control centers need to accommodate these resources and manage their interactions with the grid effectively.

10. Cybersecurity

Implement robust cybersecurity measures to protect the control center and the distribution network from cyber threats and unauthorized access.

11. Predictive Analytics

Use advanced analytics to predict equipment failures, assess the impact of weather events, and optimize network performance.

12. Customer Interaction

The control centers also have customer interaction features to communicate with consumers during outages, provide estimated restoration times, and receive outage reports from customers.

13. Microgrid Control

For networks with microgrids, the control center can manage the operation of these smaller grids within the distribution network.

A well-designed control center with these capabilities is crucial to effectively manage a distribution network, improving power quality, reducing downtime, and enhancing overall grid reliability. The figure below shows the importance of control center in monitoring and maintaining Distribution Network at the best level every time overall.

Figure 1A. 1: Interaction between control center and distribution network

1 (B). DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION

Distribution Automation is one of the foundation in building a utility with Smart Grid capabilities. It involves the use of advanced control, monitoring, and communication technologies to enhance the management and operation of power distribution networks. The primary goals of distribution automation are to reduce the outage duration, improve power quality, and optimize the use of distribution assets. In addition, it enables Control Center with various capability such as to monitor and control the interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and able reduce the risk of accidents among operational personnel.

In TNB, a dedicated project team known as Distribution Automation (DA) was formed to install various equipment such as Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), Field Terminal Unit (FTU), Motorized Switchgear and other IED equipment at all types of substations (PMU - Pencawang Masuk Utama, PPU - Pencawang Pembahagian Utama, Switching Station and Substation) at various voltage levels (132kV, 33kV and 11kV). The system uses fiber and wireless communication medium as appropriate on site. The diagram below shows the overall installation of DA and ADMS in Distribution Network.

Figure 1B.1: Type of equipment to enable remote monitoring and control

Figure 1B.2: ADMS and Distribution Automation Infrastructure in TNB Distribution Network

DA Project is set to continue strengthening the distribution network in the coming years for more efficient and reliable system. The laid out plans for DA Project is to achieve cumulative installation of 41% of the total substations in Peninsular Malaysia by end of 2024, 64% by end of 2027 and 84% by end of 2030.

Figure 1B.3: The roadmap of DA penetration until 2030

In year 2022 alone, DA Project has successfully installed and commissioned 3,541 substations covering an estimation of 2.6 million customers. This brings our total DA installation from 2014 onwards to around 24,000 distribution substations accounting for 29% of the total distribution stations in Peninsular Malaysia.

1 (C). ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ADMS)

TNB DN is currently undergoing the migration of Distribution Management System (DMS) to the Advanced Distribution Management System (ADMS) which is a software platform integrating several utility systems applications. ADMS will provide automated capabilities for timely outage restoration and optimization of the distribution grid. This will translate to higher performance, reliability in providing solution for reducing technical losses, enhanced work safety, shortened service restoration time during outages, and increasing grid resiliency to natural disasters and other threats that could disrupt the flow of power to the end-user.

The energy value chain is a complex network that encompasses various layers of energy sources and distribution equipment. This includes conventional legacy power plants, transmission lines connecting power plants to distribution networks, and existing low-voltage power distribution networks. However, in recent years, the energy value chain has witnessed significant changes with the introduction of new equipment and technologies such as:

1. Renewables and Large-Scale Solar Farms

One of the notable additions to the energy value chain is the incorporation of renewables, particularly large-scale solar farms. These renewable sources are changing the way we generate and distribute energy.

2. Battery Energy Storage Systems

Battery energy storage systems have become an integral part of the energy value chain, allowing to store and manage energy more efficiently.

3. Local Solar Farms

The emergence of local solar farms is transforming energy generation at a community level, making it more sustainable and decentralized.

4. Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

 DERs, which include various distributed energy sources, are becoming increasingly important in diversifying the energy mix and improving energy resilience.

5. Electric Vehicle Charging

The growing electric vehicle (EV) industry has necessitated the integration of electric vehicle charging infrastructure into the energy value chain.

 

These changes in the energy landscape have led to an evolution in the roles of distribution networks. They are no longer just passive carriers of electricity but have transformed into active players in the energy transition i.e.:

1. Operator of Network

Distribution network operators are now responsible for efficiently managing the grid, ensuring a stable supply of energy, and facilitating the integration of new energy sources.

2. Facilitator of Energy Transition

They play a crucial role in facilitating the transition to a more sustainable and renewable energy future.

3. Enabler of Customer Empowerment

Distribution networks empower customers by providing them with more control over their energy management as well as to cater for future energy exchange and trading.

 

To align with this evolution, distribution network operators have expanded their roles to:

1. Efficient Network Management

They focus on efficiently managing the network, optimizing energy flows, and reducing wastage.

2. Increased Supply Reliability

Ensuring a reliable supply of energy to consumers remains a top priority.

3. Fast DER Connection to Grid with Bi-directional Power Flow

Distribution networks are adapting to accommodate the rapid integration of DERs and enabling bidirectional power flow to support the grid.

 

In their capacity as facilitators of the energy transition, TNB DN are driving several key initiatives:

1. High Renewable Energy (RE) Penetration

By 2025, they aim to achieve high levels of renewable energy penetration within the grid, reducing reliance on traditional fossil fuels.

2. Promoting EV Industry Growth

Distribution networks actively support the growth of the electric vehicle industry by facilitating widespread EV charging infrastructure.

3. Reducing the National Carbon Footprint

By encouraging the adoption of cleaner energy sources and technologies, distribution networks contribute to a reduction in the national carbon footprint, helping combat climate change.

 

The roles undertaken by ADMS is to ensure customer empowerment is supported through providing the enabler for self-energy consumption and digitalization engagement.

The table and diagram below explains on the journey of ADMS implementation in TNB DN:

Year Monitoring & Control Technology
1990 – 2005

Manual Grid Management and Basic SCADA Technology National Grid completed to supply electricity to Peninsular Malaysia with distribution network operated through a standard master system.

2005 – 2014

SCADA Technology with partial Distribution Automation (Primary Stations). Support the improvement in Malaysia electricity system (SAIDI) in ASEAN countries with the distribution SCADA Master System.

2015 - 2020

SCADA Technology with OMS and Distribution Automation (Primary & Secondary Stations Main Control Centres (CC) with 2 Backup Control Centre running on the Distribution Management System (DMS). Distribution Automation (DA) Project 21% Penetration leveraging on the OMS SCADA master system.

2021 - Onwards

In the coming future, TNB has embarked on the new ADMS system to in order to utilize advanced applications to support operational excellence. Increased visibility of network assets in a single platform Enhanced cyber security through robust architecture and seamless data exchange with external systems using CIM Manage Renewable Energy with DERMS Functionality. In all it will be the major enable for TNB and Malaysia's National Energy Transition Roadmap in the year 2050.

ADMS Functions and Capabilities in TNB DN

  1. The Regional Operation Control Centre offers SCADA and DMS functionalities, along with the ability to process geographic map data (GIS). It furnishes operators with comprehensive operation displays and dispatching details. In the event of an incident, it aids operators in promptly recovering power in affected upstream and downstream sections. The system's expandability accommodates the inclusion of feeders and substations across the entire district within the Distribution Feeder Automation framework.
  2.  ADMS can monitor various substation information terminal equipment feeder via Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) & Field Terminal Unit (FTU) and other equipment installed on distribution network.
  3. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) function which allows TNB to monitor and control of automated switches, and devices within substation through geographic display for electrical network topology.
  4. Outage Management System (OMS) is a comprehensive solution designed to efficiently manage and respond to power distribution outages and related issues. It combines advanced technology to streamline outage information, restoration processes, and the coordination of field operations. This integrated system serves as a powerful tool for utilities to enhance their grid management capabilities, minimize downtime, and improve overall service reliability with integrated systems.

Figure 1C.2: Peninsular Malaysia Geographical Distribution Network

Geographic display for Operations through GIS CIM Integration

A geographic display for operations through GIS CIM integration provides a visual representation of the power distribution network using Common Information Model (CIM) data, enabling operators to monitor and manage the grid with geographic context and real-time information.

Find Location Function

Navigate easily to display from alarm event list, devices, substation, incidents & customers.

Figure 1C.3: Geographical Display in ADMS Medium Voltage

Find Location Function

Navigate easily to display from alarm event list, devices, substation, incidents & customers.

Figure 1C.4: Find Functionalities to Locate the Incident

Single Line Diagram (SLD)

Feeder schematic display based on electrical network topology.

Figure 1C.5: Network As Build View

Circuit Breaker status on feeder level schematic display based on electrical network topology.

Figure 1C.6: Internal View to Observe the Detail in Substation

Substation Information Readily Available in Substation View

Enable operator to understand the network status with a glance.

Figure 1C.7: Main Intake Substation View in ADMS

Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration (FLISR)

Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration (FLISR) is a critical functionality within an Advanced Distribution Management System (ADMS). FLISR is designed to automatically detect, pinpoint the location of faults or disruptions in the distribution network, isolate the affected areas, and quickly restore service to minimize outage durations.

FLISR in ADMS is a sophisticated and automated system that plays a crucial role in reducing the impact of distribution network faults by quickly identifying issues, isolating affected areas, and restoring service to customers in an efficient and timely manner. This enhances grid reliability and customer satisfaction.

Figure 1C.8: FLISR Status in ADMS

Planned Interfaces with Other Systems to Realize ADMS Advance Functionalities 

  • Integration with Geospatial Information System (GIS) for network model & topology.
  • Integration with Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for smart meter information.
  • Integration with Smart Work and Asset Total Solution (SWATS) for crew model & crew status.

Figure 1C.9: End-to-end System Interface for DN Operations

Success Stories

Through the implementation of SCADA and Distribution Automation, the substation became an intelligent hub of real-time data. These units continuously collected and analyzed data from various parts of the network, detecting fluctuations, overloads, and equipment failures instantaneously. As soon as an issue was detected, the RTUs sent automated alerts to the network operators for rectifications.

TNB DN observed an average of 17% reduction of restoration time from total unplanned outage, whereby majority of the outage are being restored within 15 minutes.

Figure 1C.10: Reduction of restoration time with DA

Since operators can remotely monitor equipment health and performance, detect issues or anomalies, and take corrective actions without physically visiting the site, this minimizes the need for frequent site visits and reduces traveling costs. It also enables allocation of resources more efficiently i.e. field crews can be dispatched based on actual need, rather than following a rigid schedule, further reducing travel and crew costs.

Furthermore, with the upcoming implementation of ADMS, TNB DN will have the holistic capabilities in enhancing the efficiency and reliability of our grid operations in term of:

  1. Network Visibility i.e. enhancing network visibility to facilitate more DER connections to the network.
  2. Enabling self-healing grid – along with DA and VVO, ADMS serves as foundation to establish self-healing grid capabilities.
  3. Improving Safety - DA are main enabler to elevate safety standards during grid switching operations.
  4. Enhancing system reliability & security to improve business continuity.

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Data Analytics

A smart grid affords more accurate information on user energy consumption and generation, in real time through a more data-driven.
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DIMENSION 2: DATA ANALYTICS

2(A). ADVANCED METERING INFRASTRUCTURE (AMI)

Another effort by TNB towards grid modernization is the introduction of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) project. AMI is an integrated and intelligent system that comprises smart meters well-equipped with digital features that provide near real-time data through our myTNB web portal and mobile apps, allowing customers to monitor and manage their electricity usage efficiently. Customers with smart meters can gain insights into their energy consumption through half-hourly energy usage analysis. The granular information provided by smart meters benefits not just to our clientele but also empowers our operations to pinpoint grid issues and understand consumer behaviours for more effective service delivery. By providing access to this information through the myTNB mobile app and myTNB Portal, customers acquire the ability to optimise their energy consumption, leading to reduced costs and a minimised environmental impact.

This initiative aligns with TNB’s commitment to Goal 8 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and Strategic Thrusts 2 (Key Economic Growth Activity) of the Shared Prosperity Vision (SPV) 2030. It aims to build resilient key economic sectors, particularly in the areas of green economy and renewable energy. Smart meters play a pivotal role in driving productivity, fostering digital innovation, and enhancing efficiency. They contribute to improving customer experiences through digitalisation.

Digital Billing

No more waiting for your bill in the mailbox as the smart meter records your electricity use, and automatically sends your meter reading directly to us through a secured network. You can view your bill through the myTNB App or myTNB portal anytime, anywhere.

Track Your Electricity Usage

Smart meters will show your daily and monthly home electricity usage through the myTNB App. This information puts you in control of your energy usage and helps you become more energy-efficient.

Go Green!

Saving energy will not only benefit your wallet, but it will also impact the environment. it is a win-win! With smart meters, it is easier for you to track your electricity consumption and make changes to your energy usage.

Energy Budget

Stay on top of your monthly usage by setting up your Energy Budget on the myTNB App and monitoring your energy consumption. You will be alerted when you are reaching your budget threshold, helping you be more mindful of your energy consumption.

Figure 2A.1: Smart Meter Key Benefits

Apart from enabling NEM customers and providing better network visibility to TNB, the smart meter also provides various types of smart offerings and benefits to the customer.

Types of Smart Benefits Description
Actual and Timely Electricity Bill The smart meter provides actual readings at 30-minute intervals; hence, no on-site meter reading by a meter reader is required. Timely electricity bills will be available on the myTNB web portal and app.
Manage Electricity Consumption using daily profile via myTNB Web Portal and Mobile App Smart meter customers can view detailed information on their energy consumption (in 30-minute intervals) and electricity bills through the myTNB web portal and mobile application. This empowers customers to better manage their electricity usage and be more energy-efficient.
Energy budget Customers will receive alert notifications via the myTNB mobile application once they have reached the energy usage threshold limit set earlier. This feature empowers customers to better manage their energy lifestyle by enabling them to be more aware and purposeful in their energy usage, contributing to savings in their electricity bills.
Power Outage Notification Notification of electricity supply interruption and restoration – Customers will receive timely information on power outages and updates on when power will be restored via myTNB App instead of calling TNB Careline to obtain update on the electricity supply situation. Hence, notifications of supply disruptions will reduce complaints and inquiries from customers.
Time of Use (ToU) This feature provides customers the choice to opt for ToU tariffs, which offer different pricing throughout various periods in a day e.g., peak, mid-peak and off-peak periods via Interval Billing Mechanism (IBM). As a result, customers can manage their energy usage according to the different tariffs offered throughout the day and enjoy a reduction in monthly bills by shifting consumption to off-peak hours. Additionally, with ToU implementation, overall energy demand during peak periods is reduced, resulting in reduced strain on grid infrastructure, increased energy efficiency, and a diminished impact on customers.
Faster Power Reconnection (Move in Move Out) Remote Energisation and De-Energisation With this feature, customers can connect and disconnect power supply remotely while moving in or out of their houses, thereby reducing the time for supply reconnection from up to 3 days by conventional methods to within a day using smart meters – greatly enhancing the existing customer experience. Customers can also choose the time and date at their convenience for connection and disconnection.
Smart Payment - Flexible Payment Scheme This feature helps customers control their energy consumption by empowering them to manage their energy budget and spending. The Flexible Payment Scheme also enables the premises owner to control energy usage at a rented premise and reduce the risk of unpaid bills by the tenant. It allows customers to opt for flexible payment options such as post-paid or prepaid plans. Additionally, customers can top up credit online without visiting a pay-point.

Table 2A. 1: Types of Smart Benefits

As of 30 September 2023, a total of 577,058 meters have been installed, reaching a cumulative total of 3,252,807 smart meters nationwide against the targeted 3,600,000 meters for RP3. The 3,252,807 meters are installed in Klang Valley, Melaka, Kedah and Penang. TNB DN aims to install 9.1 million smart meters across Peninsular Malaysia in phases under the AMI initiative by 2027.

Figure 2A.2: Smart Meter Yearly Installation

As one of the key enablers for the Energy Transition, AMI provides valuable network visibility for TNB and enables customers to participate in solar energy generation as prosumers through the Net Energy Metering Scheme (NEM). Currently, a total of 11,789 customers have participated in the NEM programme, supplying excess solar energy to the grid.

Deployment Schedule

Figure 2A.3: AMI Meter deployment plan up to RP4

Moving forward in 2023, the AMI project aims to install 600,000 smart meters in the remaining areas of Klang Valley, Ipoh, and Penang with target to surpass regulatory expectations, achieve sustainable implementation, and deliver benefits to customers.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure Architecture

The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) ecosystem comprises the following components:

  1. Meter Data Management (MDM) is a critical component towards realising the full potential of Advance Metering Solution, especially when implemented prior to a large-scale residential rollout.
  2. AMI/ Automated Meter Reading (AMR) Impact on Utilities Business Processes: The implementation of AMI/AMR will have an immediate impact on utilities' business processes.
  3. A meter data management system facilitates the IT integration of AMI/AMR and streamlines the distribution of meter data across the utility enterprise. It frames the volumes of interval data retrieved from the field into manageable and familiar information.
  4. At a minimum, MDM provides a database repository and utility-specific business logic to:
  • Automate and streamline the complex process of collecting meter data from multiple meter data collection technologies.
  • Evaluate the quality of that data and generate estimates where errors and gaps exist.
  • Deliver that data in the appropriate format to utility billing systems.

Figure 2A.4: 3 Types of Communication Medium for AMI Ecosystem

TNB has deployed three types of technologies, including Radio Frequency (RF), Power Line Carrier (PLC), and Cellular, for smart meters and communication networks. Currently, the primary communication technology implemented in the Klang Valley is Radio Frequency (RF), which utilises the 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz frequency bands. Cellular technologies are mainly used in areas where it is not viable to use RF technologies, such as in low-density suburban or rural areas. PLC is currently limited to Melaka areas only. The meters use these three technologies to communicate back to the Head-End System (HES) located in the TNB data centre.

Meter reading and events data from smart meters are transmitted to the TNB Data Management System via communication networks (e.g., Repeater, NAN Collector, Extender Bridge, Data Concentrator Unit, Telco Network) and through the HES. This data is then used to enable smart customer offerings, some of which are currently available via the myTNB Mobile App, such as Auto-Billing, Consumption Monitoring, Energy Budget, and the NEM. In addition to obtaining meter reads and events, TNB can also send commands back to the meters, such as remote connection/disconnection, as well as perform over-the-air upgrades (e.g., firmware upgrades) of the smart meters without physically visiting the customer premises.

The Meter Data Management System (MDMS) receives meter data from the HES, validates, processes, and stores the data before transferring it to downstream systems for billing, reporting, and analysis.The Core functionality of the MDMS platform include:

  • Data Collection & Processing*
  • Data Collection & Processing*
  • Data Synchronisation*
  • AMI Systems Monitoring
  • Validation, Estimation and Editing (VEE)*
  • Exception Handling
  • Event Notification Services
  • Connect/Disconnect
  • Workflow Engine
  • On Demand Read
  • Performance Reports
  • Billing Determinants
  • Time of Use Rates*
  • Automated Meter Provisioning

Table 2A.2: Core functionality of the MDMS platform

In general, the MDMS provides a database repository and utility-specific business logic to:

  • Automate and streamline the complex process of collecting meter data from multiple technologies.
  • Evaluate the quality of the data and generate estimates where errors and gaps exist.
  • Deliver the data in the appropriate format to utility billing systems.

MDMS is a critical component in realising the full potential of advanced metering solutions, especially for large-scale residential rollouts. The implementation of AMI will have a major impact on the utility’s business processes and requires extensive integration with various new and existing systems across the business. A meter data management system facilitates the IT integration of AMI and streamlines the distribution of meter data across the utility enterprise by framing the volumes of interval data retrieved from the field into manageable and familiar information.

2(B). ASSET MANAGEMENT WITH ANALYTICS APPLICATIONS

In today's evolving energy landscape, efficient asset management is crucial. Electrical grids are the lifeline of society, but aging infrastructure and rising energy demands pose challenges. To tackle this, TNB has developed Asset Management Plan, an effective asset management system with ISO 55001: 2014 Asset Management certification, to optimize cost, risk, and performance across the asset lifecycle. Under the plan, we have outlined the necessary implementations to realize TNB’s asset management policy, strategy, and objectives.

Additionally, advanced asset analytics coupled with real-time data from IoT sensors, uses data-driven insights to predict and prevent failures, reduce unplanned outages, optimize maintenance, and ensure network reliability. For example, IoT sensors can monitor the condition of transformers and transmission lines, transmitting valuable data to analytics platforms, which, in turn, identify potential issues and enable proactive maintenance. This combination is a pivotal tool for delivering dependable, efficient, and sustainable electricity.

2(B).1 GRID DIGITAL INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE (GDII) FOR HV ASSET MANAGEMENT

The Grid of the Future comprises two critical components: Grid Modernization and Grid Digitalization. Without the integration of both, the realization of a Smart Grid remains unattainable. Since 2018, TNB has diligently crafted a comprehensive strategy known as Grid Digital Transformation, aimed at addressing the complex energy trilemma encompassing supply security, affordability, and sustainability. We firmly assert that digital technologies can play a pivotal role in achieving these strategic objectives:

  1. Managing the risk of aging asset profile
  2. Ensuring prudent asset investment
  3. Facilitating optimization of generation costs
  4. Promoting operational excellence
  5. Positioning Grid as an organization for the future of work
  6. Championing the energy transition

Attaining real-time visibility into grid assets offers a substantial improvement in our capacity to predict failures with precision, thus enhancing our intervention capabilities. This proactive approach is instrumental in maintaining the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of our Routine Maintenance and Operational Expenditures (OPEX). Indirectly, it yields considerable advantages for our customers by stabilizing electricity costs and ensuring a consistent, dependable power supply. Furthermore, enhanced observability of the grid empowers the implementation of advanced protective schemes and cutting-edge technologies, bolstering grid stability and reliability across expansive geographical areas.

Figure 2B.1: GDII high level system architecture diagram

A pivotal element in realizing the GDII initiative involves the deployment of an Enterprise Gateway (EGW) at the substation level. This sophisticated EGW serves as the central hub for the acquisition of real-time data from an array of devices, including Phasor measurement units, Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs), sensors, and transducers situated within the substation. Subsequently, this EGW facilitates the transmission of this data to the enterprise-level historian.

Furthermore, the EGW assumes the dual role of an edge processor, responsible for the real-time processing of acquired data before forwarding it to the historian for additional analysis. In this capacity, it serves to trigger actionable responses, such as the issuance of maintenance notifications to the designated team members through email communication, thereby enhancing operational efficiency and reliability. Until Oct 2023, EGW has been installed in almost 90% of grid’s substation.Through GDII, TNB managed to develop a few applications such as:

1. Centralized Equipment Condition Online Monitoring System (CECOMS)

Figure 2B.2: CECOMS

2. Self-healing Grid

A distributed platform to support custom protection and control system to sustain grid network stability and availability during disturbances and other power system contingencies. It incorporates real-time monitoring technologies (Synchrophasor, WAMS, SCADA, EMS, etc.) to determine network operational state through advanced analytics and deploy countermeasures to prevent escalation of events into major disturbances. It creates value in the following ways:

  • Prevent widespread blackout
  • Helps GSO to manage the grid in the most reliable and economical manner (optimizing cheaper generation)

As of today, TNB already have 5 schemes to cater contingency in multiple places.

3.  Automatic Fault Analysis (AFA)

When a fault occurs on the transmission system, detecting and diagnosing faults promptly is critical to minimize downtime and reduce the costs associated with repairs and maintenance on the transmission line assets. Prior to AFA, the process for fault analysis can be time-consuming and rely heavily on human expertise. To make fault detection and analysis more efficient, TNB has successfully develop an automatic fault analysis (AFA) software tool that can help automatically identify fault locations and performance data analysis. AFA functions including automated collection of disturbance-related data, synchronization of time-domain data, determination of fault location and performing fault analysis. Most importantly, AFA will capture data during a disturbance and send notification to the system operator almost immediately after the fault. AFA has proven to provide the following benefits:

  • Reduced outage times with accurate fault location.
  • Lower line patrol costs.
  • Increased productivity by automating data compilation tasks, which expedite detailed event analysis.
  • Increased system resilience, by performing structured verification of protection systems.
  • Monitor the substation’s equipment health and condition including asset history, parameter and maintenance record.

Figure 2B.3: AFA performed fault analysis on overhead line related to lightning

 

Figure 2B.4: AFA performed fault analysis on overhead line related to permanent fault

 

Figure 2B.5: Email Notification Upon Fault

4. DC System Monitoring

Substation Power Supply or DC system supplies power to control, protection, and monitoring devices within the substation. It plays a critical role in ensuring the proper functioning of the protection system. By installing sensors within the DC panel, it becomes possible to monitor the voltage profile of the DC system in real-time. Grid maintenance team is now able identify the presence of DC Earth Fault in short duration by analysing the pattern of real-time and historical data. It also provides a facility to detect any abnormality in substation DC supply before a serious DC supply failure occur.

5. CVT Monitoring

Voltage transformer is one of the most abundant assets within TNB. Historically, maintenance and assessment of these transformers have been conducted through manual means, involving on-site visits by maintenance teams to perform measurements and analyses. With the development of the Grid Digital Intelligent Infrastructure, voltage transformer monitoring can now be conducted in a smart and automated manner. Real-time voltage data is subject to online analysis using statistical methods to assess the overall health of the population. In case of any detected outliers, email notifications will be sent to the maintenance team for a secondary validation, prior to deciding on the most suitable corrective action.

  

Figure 2B.6: CVT Monitoring Dashboard

2(B).2 ASSET INVESTMENT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT (AIPM) FOR HV ASSET MANAGEMENT

Asset Investment Planning and Management (AIPM) is a strategic asset management practice used by best-in-class organizations to realize the highest value from existing assets and select future opportunities that will provide the greatest return to the organization.

Key Features/Functions

The Asset Investment Planning Management (AIPM) project has a total of six (6) expected deliverables which includes:

  • Systematic & consistency in investment decision making
  • Optimum, prudent & timely investment under IBR
  • Transparent investment proposal to regulator
  • Realization of values for every dollar spent on asset
  • Manage dynamic & flexible IBR environment & other constraints
  • Create long-term & efficient investment strategy while proactively managing risks

Figure 2B.7: Simplified operating model of Asset Investment Planning Management (AIPM) System.

Among the critical path that is associated with the Asset Investment Planning Management (AIPM) project is value identification where all core values of the organizations need to be determined agreed by all departments. A total of seven (7) value models have been identified as the core values of the organization which covers from compliance, corporate, environmental, financial, image / reputation, reliability and safety and health. In extension to that, the seven (7) value models are further divided into twenty-two (22) sub-models that represent the diverse risk or expected benefit that are commonly recognized through the purpose of investment in transmission utility. Ultimately, it reflects all the concerns, problem, risk and desired expectation in the organization, stakeholders and regulator in the framework of monetize value. Endorsement by the top management on the value models as it set the direction for decision making for the future in dealing with all investments.

AIPM also focuses on alignment of value models and calculation parameters. For tangible value models, different calculation formula will be formed to derive the risk value or benefit value, for example reliability - supply interruption / supply performance is calculated based on expected unserved energy and probability of failures. While for non-tangible values is based on a set of consequence that are separated into five (5) degrees level from insignificant, minor, moderate, major and catastrophic which can be compared in monetized value. Alignment of processes that are associated with the decision making on investment is also considered in Asset Investment Planning Management (AIPM) System design. This is to provide standardized process for all investment proposal and having a clear line of sight for all the required approving processes and enable organization-wide portfolio monitoring and tracking.

 

Figure 2B.8: Representation of Total Value Generation Projection from Investment in AIPM System.

AIPM features are also available for MV Asset Management, which is embedded in i-NET. A detailed explanation of this can be found in Section 2 (C).

2(B).3 ASSET PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (APMS) FOR HV AND MV ASSET MANAGEMENT

TNB Grid and Distribution Network have implemented the APMS to facilitate the asset maintenance regime in ensuring the performance of critical asset and ensuring the reliability of the system. The solution enables visualization and analysis of asset health index in real-time, enabling risk-based maintenance and reduced core transmission expenditure. The APMS platform is designed to develop a methodology to represent asset health and asset criticality that allows asset owner or service engineer to decide on short term and long-term maintenance strategy. APMS aims to deliver three (3) main objectives which are:

  • Optimise maintenance spend through introduction of Asset Risk Index through analytics.
  • Integrate with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and work management system to initiate work orders for repair and replacement.
  • Unlock the capability of predictive performance analysis.

Among the parameters that Asset Performance Management System (APMS) consider for its asset health index (AHI), asset criticality index (ACI) and asset risk index (ARI) are showed in the Table 1.

Asset Risk Index (ARI)
Asset Health Index (AHI) Asset Criticality Index (ACI)
  1. Bushing Aggregated condition
  2. Initial Health Score
  3. Reliability (Malfunction history)
  4. Tap Changer Condition
  5. Measuring Modifier (DGA, Power factor, thermal measurement, winding condition etc.)
  1. Environment safety level
  2. Substation Busbar configuration
  3. Substation type
  4. Transformer Load (average)
  5. Transformer Spare Availability
  6. Customer Profile

Table 2B.1 APMS - Transformer Asset Risk Index, Asset Health Index & Asset Criticality Index.

Asset Risk Index (ARI)
Asset Health Index (AHI) Asset Criticality Index (ACI)
  1. Initial Health Score
  2. Reliability (Malfunction history)
  3. Service Availability
  4. Tap Changer Condition
  5. Measuring Modifier (DGA, Power factor, thermal measurement, winding condition etc.)
  1. Feeder Criticality Score (line bay, transformer bay, busbar bay etc.)
  2. Substation Busbar configuration
  3. Substation type
  4. Voltage level

 Table 2B.2 APMS – High & Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Asset Risk Index, Asset Health Index & Asset Criticality Index

Following the result from the mentioned parameters, APMS will import all the testing results that were entered by maintenance crew to analyse the health index of the assets. Trigger limits are set in APMS and work scheduling can be released following the condition of the assets.

Figure 2B.9: APMS Key Capabilities

APMS is the enabler to drive the organization digital transformation aspiration by providing data and trending to predict the different scenario based on the equipped remaining life model.  The end goal is to have a seamlessly integrated system for asset performance management that enables TNB to optimize Asset Risk, Performance, and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).

Future Development on APMS

A future enhancement roadmap the functionality APMS have been planned to ensure that the platform is capable to adapt to the newly installed devices like Online Monitoring System (OMS) and IoT sensors, expand its coverage to other current carrying assets like Current Transformer, Over-headlines, cables and etc. The functionality of APMS will be further stretched to facilitate the overall asset life cycle to allow a holistic approach based on the utility best practice for asset management.

2B.3 ADVANCED ASSET ANALYTICS FOR MV ASSET MANAGEMENT

On Medium Voltage Network, TNB Distribution Network introduced Advanced Asset Analytics (AAA) project, a pioneering initiative that marks a significant transformation in power utility asset management. The AAA project epitomizes a commitment to reliability, sustainability, and innovation. The AAA project will also expand the understanding concerning asset health, criticality, and risk indices while providing full insights into asset performance measures. It embodies TNB's dedication to delivering exceptional value to our customers, enhancing worker safety, and contributing to a more sustainable energy sector.

The AAA project harnesses state-of-the-art technology and advanced data analytics to provide real-time, precise, and predictive insights into the health of TNB's critical assets, including transformers, circuit breakers, and underground cables. The deployment stages of AAA involved two processes and have involved both hardware and software.

1. Establishing Asset Analytics Engine

Vast quantities of data need a comprehensive and efficient data analytics system, which leads in the development and implementation of a robust analytics engine. The engine will also involve the integration of cutting-edge data analytics algorithms to facilitate real-time analysis. The creation of a centralized platform for data aggregation, processing, and visualization will be pivotal, allowing and providing TNB a consolidated, user-friendly interface to gain valuable insights from the data. TNB has implemented Asset Performance Management System (APMS) for this purpose.

APMS can enable visualization and analysis of asset health index in real-time, enabling risk-based maintenance and reduced core transmission expenditure. Asset Health Index (AHI), Asset Criticality, and Asset Risk Index are automatically generated by the system based on data fed from visual inspection and condition test results conducted on the primary equipment by the operation and maintenance field crew. This index will determine the actions required for the equipment in terms of planning the next test schedule and replacement of defective equipment. APMS can be used as a data analysis tool, trending and life extension of equipment in asset maintenance regime. The end goal is to have a seamlessly integrated system for asset performance management that enables TNB to optimize Asset Risk, Performance, and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).

Figure 2B.10: APMS Dashboard

2. Installing Internet of Things (IoT) Sensors

This methodology entails the strategic deployment of a range of Internet of Things (IoT) sensors for comprehensive real-time condition monitoring. These sensors serve as the vanguard of continuous data collection, providing a holistic view of asset health. The types of IoT sensors employed include:

  1. Thermal Sensors. These sensors monitor temperature variations within assets, allowing us to detect overheating or abnormal thermal patterns that could indicate potential issues.
  2. Partial Discharge Sensors.These sensors detect partial discharges within assets, which can be indicative of insulation degradation or other internal problems.
  3. SF6 Gas Density Sensors. Monitoring SF6 gas density helps us assess the condition of equipment and detect gas leaks, ensuring safety and asset integrity.
  4. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) Sensors. DGA sensors analyse the gases dissolved in transformer oil, providing insights into the condition of transformer insulation and potential faults

Figure 2B.11: Type of IoT Sensors and Tools

The detailed information on AAA process flow, data flow as well as high level architecture are listed below:

Figure 2B.12: Process flow of end-to-end monitoring via IoT sensors

 

 

Figure 2B.13: AAA IoT Data Flow Architecture

Figure 2B.14: IoT Switchgear Overall Architecture and Data Flow

Figure 2B.15: Transformer Overall Architecture and Data Flow

Achievements and Benefits

Performance Progress (Software)

Figure 2B.16: Results and trends in APMS to assist asset management decision making

Performance Progress (Hardware)

Figure 2B.17: Installation of IoT sensors at selected main distribution substations

Figure 2B.18: Monitoring MV Switchgears: (PD/Thermal) for AIS

Figure 2B.19: Monitoring MV Switchgears: (PD/Thermal) for SF6

Figure 2B.20: Monitoring of 33/11 kV Power Transformers

Since its inception, the AAA project has achieved noteworthy milestones, delivering benefits that extend well beyond cost savings. One prominent achievement is the significant enhancement of safety measures for our workforce. By deploying IoT sensors for real-time condition monitoring, workers encounter fewer high-voltage equipment interactions during maintenance activities. This reduction in exposure significantly diminishes the inherent risks associated with manual inspections.

Furthermore, the accuracy of asset health assessments has witnessed a remarkable enhancement. Unlike conventional manual scanning conducted from outside the equipment, the strategically positioned sensors within the equipment itself enable highly accurate, real-time data collection, resulting in precise asset health evaluations.Moreover, continuous monitoring facilitated by IoT sensors obviates the need for periodic checks during maintenance visits. This proactive asset management approach ensures the timely identification and resolution of issues, reducing the risk of unforeseen failures and supply interruptions.

The analytics engine, APMS, standout feature is its capability to predict the rate of change (RoC) in asset conditions. This predictive prowess empowers us to anticipate asset deterioration before reaching critical levels. Armed with this foresight, TNB can proactively schedule maintenance or replacements, mitigating costly downtime and ensuring an uninterrupted power supply to our valued customers.

Pilot Rollout in Klang Valley (2022-2024)

The AAA project's journey began with a pilot rollout in the Klang Valley from 2022 to 2024. This initial phase allowed us to validate the technology, fine-tune our processes, and gather invaluable data. The Klang Valley pilot serves as a testament to our commitment to excellence through thorough testing and validation before full-scale deployment.

Figure 2B.21: Sensors installed on breaker

Impact on Customers

The AAA project brings substantial benefits to our customers by minimizing both planned and unplanned shutdowns. By proactively addressing asset health issues, we significantly reduce the frequency and duration of supply interruptions. This ensures that our customers enjoy a more dependable power supply, contributing to their convenience and productivity. The reduction in unplanned shutdowns also leads to improved customer satisfaction and trust in TNB's commitment to service excellence.

Environmental and Community Impact

The AAA project aligns harmoniously with global environmental objectives by reducing carbon emissions through the prevention of unscheduled maintenance and repair activities. TNB's unwavering commitment to excellence extends to the communities we serve. The AAA project indirectly benefits these communities by guaranteeing a stable and uninterrupted power supply. This support sustains economic activities and enhances overall quality of life, affirming TNB's role as a responsible corporate entity.

Future Target State Capabilities

This comprehensive infrastructure enhancement project encompasses a range of initiatives aimed at optimizing the performance and reliability of the distribution network. Firstly, it involves the expansion of IoT sensors, with a focus on their installation in Criticality Class 1 substations and linear assets. Concurrently, IoT test equipment will be deployed in bulk to support field crews in their operations. The project also includes the expansion of the analytics engine to encompass various asset types, such as underground cables, overhead lines, and protection devices.

To ensure a seamless integration of data and analytics, an end-to-end asset lifecycle analytics system will be linked with the Asset Investment Planning Management (AIPM) solution. Furthermore, this initiative delves into the realm of digital twins, where an accurate model of the physical distribution network interconnected assets will be created for simulating asset risk analytics.To bolster real-time monitoring and predictive capabilities, Distribution Network Asset Health Centre will be established, ensuring the continuous assessment of asset performance and utilization while forecasting potential asset failures. These strategic endeavours collectively aim to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and long-term sustainability of the distribution network.

2 (C). ASSET ANALYTICS FOR MV NETWORK EXPANSION

Advance asset analytics projects also encompass network management to enhance the overall resiliency of the grid. This comprehensive approach ensures that the network is robust enough to cater to a wide range of operational challenges and external factors. By continually monitoring the performance of grid assets and analyzing network data, these initiatives empower grid operators to respond effectively to adverse conditions such as extreme weather events, cyber threats, and changing load patterns. Through proactive measures as highlighted in the project below, real-time insights, and dynamic adjustments, the grid can adapt and maintain its dependable service, ultimately delivering sustainable, reliable electricity to meet the ever-growing energy demands of our modern society.

i-NET (Integration Network Expansion Tool)

i-NET is an analytical solution custom built for distribution network planners to facilitate Centralised Planning and Capacity Allocation Management. It was a digitalisation initiative to enable effective realisation of Smart Utility 2025 masterplan of DN which demands accurate network planning of dual power flow system, centralised governance of efficient planning, overall optimisation of CAPEX planning and management as well as productivity improvement to cater for job enhancement of planning unit to take up additional tasks related to grid modernisation.

Figure 2C.1 below illustrates the high-level solution framework of i-NET implementation for distribution planning as a part of Enterprise Asset Management System (EAMS). Traditionally the architecture of EAMS consist of Enterprise Resource Management System (ERMS), Asset Performance Management System (APMS), Asset Investment Planning and Management (AIPM) and Project Portfolio Management (PPM).

Figure 2C.1: High level solution framework of i-NET Capabilities

While completing the traditional building blocks of EAMS, i-NET goes beyond the basic requirements of EAMS i.e. capabilities of Network Planning Analytics is coupled with AIPM as a total solution for planners sandwiched between APMS and PPM. i-NET is embedded with the customised methodology of Distribution Annual Planning Cycle analysis which generates network expansion requirements and becomes an input to AIPM where annual capital allocation is prioritised and optimised according to strategic objectives of the organisation.

Hence, besides process automation, i-NET is a decision support system (DSS) and single source of truth for centralised planning and capital allocation with below features:

  1. A unified Platform for distribution annual planning cycle studies conducted by nationwide planners
  2. Centralised capex portfolio planning and management through risk-based evaluation and mathematical optimisation 
  3. Automated data collection and result generation based on admin specified logics and user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) 
  4. Ad-hoc result simulation for unique scenario planning
  5. Convenient interactive analytical tool with custom built Visual Analytics Reporting

As a total solution for distribution planners, the capabilities of i-NET can be segmented into 2 major parts i.e. Centralised Network Planning Analytics and Asset Investment Planning and Management.

1. Centralised Network Planning Analytics

The forecasting methodology adopted in i-NET allows advanced load forecasting capabilities. It is a progressive migration from simple time series forecast to a much-advanced multi-variant time series analysis which encapsulates time series as well as regression models. Time series analysis searches for recent trending as well as seasonal or recurrent relationship of demand with respect to time parameter. The multi-variant parameters used in this forecast model considers the influence of Peninsular Malaysia’s economic factors such as population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), weather and others.

With demand by main intake substation as the dependent variable and the respective econometric factors (Weather, GDP, Population, Nos. of Household, Electricity price & Commercial floor space) as the independent variables, i-NET automatically identifies the best statistical fit by comparing against unlimited models. Any irregularities are automatically detected which produces forecasting result that is free from human error. Besides, in i-NET there are functionalities to configure impact of recurring or non-recurring events such as festive season, natural disasters, high profile event and sudden spike of industrial step load. As a result, i-NET generates high accuracy forecast which will basically determines the accuracies of consecutive studies of DAPC i.e. Load Disaggregation, Capacity Planning and Distribution Network Master Plan.

Upon finalisation of Load Forecasting, i-NET allows automated Load disaggregation, where forecasted demand is disaggregated to distribution primary and secondary substations to generate 20-year demand forecast by asset. All demand transfers between assets to optimise asset utilisation are handled within i-NET properly recorded on a geospatial unified platform as illustrated in Figure 2C.2.

Figure 2C.2: Example of 20-years Load Disaggregation to PMU Pasir Puteh 132/33kV with proposed future load transfers

2. Asset Investment Planning and Management (AIPM) for MV Assets

The AIPM establishment in i-NET focuses in achieving end to end Core CAPEX lifecycle management with automated project evaluation, CAPEX portfolio optimisation as well as post implementation impact tracking. It comprises of 5 main capabilities as deliberated below:

a. Project Life Cycle Management and Tracking which provides single source of truth for CAPEX lifecycle management.

b. Project Assessment & Risk Management which enables automated identification of “effective” CAPEX to avoid potential OPEX evaluated by unique needs of local area characteristics leveraging on concept of risk or value-based decision making.

c. CAPEX Portfolio Planning & Optimisation which can be broadly classified as mathematical optimisation of CAPEX portfolios against constraints or targets i.e. short term / medium term strategic objectives of the organisation, allowable CAPEX allowances specified by regulators, availability of resources and elements of related nature. This allows agile optimisation of CAPEX portfolios for optimum value creation within Regulatory Period targets.

d. Periodic Revision of Budgetary Requirements allows centralised CAPEX lifecycle management by distribution planners to ensure optimal utilisation of CAPEX adjusted against constraint faced during implementation to avoid prolonged stagnation of CAPEX or project.

e. Interactive Dashboards for Performance Monitoring provides easy performance tracking by middle management

Figure 2C.3: Conceptual illustration of AIPM capabilities in i-NET

In a nutshell, digitalisation of abovementioned capabilities is expected to yield enhanced process efficiencies, enhanced risk management, enhanced investment evaluation, enhanced portfolio evaluation, improved system project outcomes and overall bullet proofing of DN’s CAPEX proposal accompanied by risk monetization and proven value creation. Figure 2C.3 shows a conceptual illustration of AIPM capabilities in i-NET.

Other analytics-driven projects to facilitate asset management: 
Project Description
Intelligent Predictive and Diagnostic Monitoring (IPDM) System Utilizes software that enables plant operators to detect anomalies in the operations of major assets, thus allowing for early preventative actions.
Drones Aerodyne drone services to perform Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of bare overhead lines nationwide.
Online Monitoring System for Gas Analysis Assesses the condition of transformer bushings and gas-insulated switchgear.
Automatic Fault Analysis and Fault Location Identification System Assists operation and maintenance team for faster decision-making during restoration processes.
Geographic Information System Provides accurate location information to manage, operate and analyse TNB’s network assets.
UAV LiDAR System (New initiative) Developed an automated detection system to ensure the selection of proposed transmission line routes will avoid sensitive and/or endangered species during planning.
Predictive Analytics for 11kV Underground Cable Failure using Machine Learning To predict 11kV underground cable failure probability based on historical data set and correlation between maintenance data and breakdown data, using machine learning technology.

Table 2C: Analytics driven projects

2 (D). ENERGY TRANSITION OPEN DATA PORTAL – SMART ENERGY MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE (SEMI)

Transparency is fundamental to building trust and facilitating informed decision-making. In our forward-looking strategy, TNB Distribution Network is actively developing the Energy Transition Open Data Portal, a cutting-edge data hub platform. This portal represents a significant advancement with the potential to bring about numerous benefits: 

  • Facilitating Faster Solar Installations: The Energy Transition Open Data Portal will streamline the solar installation process. By offering data-driven insights, it can expedite applications and approvals, making it easier for customers to adopt solar power.
  • Prioritizing Supply Applications: The platform will enable the prioritization of supply applications. It helps identify and address the most critical supply demands swiftly, enhancing the overall customer experience.
  • Meeting Customer Expectations: As customer expectations continue to evolve, the portal caters to the increasing demand for a transparent and efficient connection process, aligning with evolving customer preferences and expectations.
  • Enabling Active Participation: The portal offers an option for customers and stakeholders to actively engage with the energy system. It encourages involvement and empowers users to take charge of their energy choices.
  • Enhancing Supply Reliability: By providing visibility into all connected solar rooftops, particularly those on LV (Low Voltage) networks, through advanced analytics and registration, the platform significantly enhances the reliability of the energy supply.
  • Forecasting Generation from DER/Solar: The Energy Transition Open Data Portal generates accurate generation forecasts for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and solar energy. This capability addresses the challenges of managing DER intermittency and volatility, reducing network issues such as reverse flows, curtailments, phase imbalances, and maintaining power quality.
  • Predicting Future DER Growth: The portal can forecast future DER growth, helping to proactively address unforeseen network congestion and adapt the energy infrastructure accordingly. This forward-looking approach ensures the grid remains reliable and resilient.

TNB’s EnergyTransition Open Data Portal draws inspiration from global initiatives such as the Open Energy Data Initiative in the European Union and UKPN, and its potential to revolutionize energy management is substantial.

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Supply Reliability

No matter how smart a grid is, it also has to remain reliable to ensure uninterrupted supply and generation to the people.
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DIMENSION 3: SUPPLY RELIABILITY

System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) and System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) for TNB Distribution, in this context, are major metrics used to assess the supply reliability and quality of electrical power service provided to customers in Malaysia. SAIDI measures the average duration of power interruptions experienced by customers served by TNB Distribution in Malaysia, typically expressed in minutes per customer per year. It is calculated by summing the total duration of all interruptions in a specific period and dividing it by the total number of customers served by the distribution system. The formula for SAIDI is as follows:

  SAIDI = Total Duration of Interruptions (in minutes)
              Number of Customers

On the other hand, SAIFI, or System Average Interruption Frequency Index, measures the average number of interruptions experienced by customers over a specific period. It is calculated by summing the total number of interruptions during a given time frame and dividing it by the total number of customers. The formula for SAIFI is:

  SAIFI = Total Number of Interruptions)
              Number of Customers

These metrics are essential for TNB Distribution to monitor and improve service quality and reliability, meeting the needs and expectations of its customers. They also serve as benchmarks for performance against industry standards and help guide investments to reduce both the frequency and duration of power outages. By focusing on both SAIDI and SAIFI, TNB Distribution can ensure a more robust and reliable electrical distribution system for its customers.

3 (A). SAIDI & SAIFI PERFORMANCE FOR TNB

The TNB Distribution Network Division has set an annual SAIDI target for 2022 of between 48 to 53 min/customer/year and will continue to monitor SAIDI for 15 selected cities in urban areas as shown in Table 3.1. As per the Performance Indicator (PI) guidelines, Energy Commission has granted approval for the inclusion of five SAIDI cities up to year 2021, along with the addition another ten new SAIDI cities up to year 2024. The established target for these cities is 35 min/customer/year.

Selected cities for SAIDI Urban (2018-2021) Selected cities for SAIDI Urban (2022-2024) Remarks
1. Kuala Lumpur 1. Ipoh Average performance of the specified 15 cities, weighted according to energy sales in each city.
2. Shah Alam 2. Malacca City (Melaka Barat)
3. Petaling Jaya 3. Alor Setar
4. Johor Bahru 4. Kuala Terengganu
5. Pulau Pinang (Island) 5. Iskandar Puteri
  6. Seberang Jaya
7. Seremban
8. Subang Jaya
9. Pasir Gudang
10. Kuantan

Table 3.1: List of cities for SAIDI Urban

Sustaining a SAIDI metric of 48 minutes for TNB Distribution Network represents a commitment to ensuring a high level of power supply reliability for our valued customers.

As at FY2022, TNB has successfully maintained its SAIDI at 45.06 minutes, solidifying its reputation as one of the most dependable electricity providers among ASEAN countries, all while maintaining highly competitive tariff rates. Notably, TNB achieved an impressive SAIDI score of 30.04 minutes for Kuala Lumpur, underscoring its exceptional reliability in the city. In 2022, TNB also saw an improvement in its SAIFI, reducing interruptions to 0.84 per year. Beyond monitoring the overall SAIDI performance index, TNB has expanded its monitoring to cover 15 cities, which are equivalent to other utility Central Business Districts (CBDs). The SAIDI target set for these 15 cities is 35 minutes, and as of August 2023, their performance stands at 36.27 minutes, showcasing TNB's ongoing commitment to service reliability.

SAIDI
(min/cust/year)
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Target : 50
Achievement: 48.13
Target : 50
Achievement: 44.95
Target : 50
Achievement: 45.25
Target : 50
Achievement: 45.06
Target : 50 (35 for
SAIDI Urban for 15 cities)

Table 3.2: Sustaining SAIDI

 

Figure 3A.1: SAIDI and SAIFI FY2022 from TNB’s Annual Report Page 74

3 (B). SAIDI INITIATIVES

Achieving and maintaining this standard requires a strategic and proactive approach through robust system planning and diligent asset maintenance. To achieve this goal, TNB Distribution concurrently invests in modernizing and upgrading its infrastructure to mitigate the risks of power interruptions. This includes the implementation of cutting-edge technologies, grid automation, and effective load management systems. Regular maintenance and inspection of critical assets, such as transformers and substations, should be prioritized to prevent unexpected failures. Moreover, effective monitoring and predictive maintenance using data analytics helps identify potential issues before its escalated into major disruptions. By aligning our strategies with system planning and asset maintenance best practices, TNB Distribution consistently delivers on the promise of a SAIDI metric, ensuring a reliable and uninterrupted power supply for our customers. 

3(B).1 Strategy For Supply Reliability Through System Planning

TNB's strategy for ensuring supply reliability through systematic planning is grounded in the principles of Life Cycle Asset Management. This approach is aimed at meticulously planning and expanding our network to enhance system performance while maintaining cost efficiency. To ensure that our network has the necessary capacity, we follow an annual review process, illustrated in Figure 3B.1, which encompasses several key activities:

 

Figure 3B.1: Planning Cycle Activities

Load Forecasts

These forecasts are based on historical sales data, local factors, and economic indicators. We perform 20-year forecasts annually to anticipate future demands accurately.

Load Disaggregation

In this step, we break down projected demand into state and supply zones. The final demands for each state or supply zone include projections for the growth of demand at Transmission Main-Intake Substations (PMUs) over the 20-year planning horizon.

Capacity Planning

Consisting of Sub-Transmission Capacity Planning (STCP) and Distribution Capacity Planning (DCP)

Sub-Transmission Capacity Planning (STCP)

This involves evaluating the capacity versus demand outlook for each supply zone over a 10-year horizon. It identifies the risk of capacity shortfalls and the need for additional capacity development, including new PMUs or increasing the transformer capacity of existing ones.

Distribution Capacity Planning (DCP)

This is a similar analysis but at the 33kV distribution level over a 5-year planning horizon. It aims to pinpoint capacity gaps and the asset development requirements for Distribution Main Intake Substations (PPUs), mainly those operating at 33/11kV in the distribution system.

Distribution Network Master Plans (DNMP)

These plans are essential documents for the development of our distribution network. They involve the analysis of system security performance and related network enhancement needs for 33kV and 11kV systems in each supply zone. The DNMP report is reviewed annually to ensure that major distribution enhancement projects for 33kV and 11kV are identified, planned, and implemented within the 5-year (33kV) and 4-year (11kV) analysis horizon.

In addition to these planning activities, we identify and execute asset replacement programs based on established criteria and policies in line with best asset management practices. Considerations include the asset's health index, age profile, operational safety, and product support.

The list of 33kV and 11kV system development, system improvement, and asset replacement projects are compiled and prioritized based on their criticality for implementation. This prioritization follows methodologies such as Risk-Based Decision Making (RBDM), Financial Evaluation Template (FET), and Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). These practices ensure that we make informed decisions regarding the maintenance and expansion of our network to guarantee a reliable and resilient power supply for our customers.

3(B).2 Strategy for Supply Reliability Through Asset Maintenance

In managing TNB supply reliability, five (5) core asset maintenance strategies have been established in the distribution network where most assets are operating which as follows:

Figure 3B.2: 5 Core of Asset Maintenance Strategies

Each strategy is supported by Initiatives as shown in Table 3B.1.

No Main Strategies Major Initiatives
1 Potential Failure Detection IoT Sensors
Online PD Scanning & PIDAR For MVUG Cable
PD Mapping for MV Cable (OWTS)
2 Major Failure Prevention a. Commissioning of ARC Protection
b. 11kV Project Injections
3 Asset Replacement Program Replace MV Critical Cable Section
4 Enhance Automation Enabler Distribution Automation Project
5 GSL Management Cleansing Worst Performing Feeders *

Table 3B.1:  Activities for sustaining SAIDI Performance

TNB has initiated a proactive approach to potential failure detection, incorporating Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for underground cables, which employs the partial discharge (PD) mapping technique and online partial discharge detection. This system is instrumental in early defect identification, thereby mitigating the likelihood of substantial failures. Furthermore, TNB has extended CBM practices to 33kV switchgears, effectively reducing the risk of defects that could lead to flashovers.

In the realm of system safety, TNB has taken measures to avert catastrophic events through the installation and activation of arc flash protection schemes at PMUs/PPUs. These advanced systems have the capability to detect the initial stages of a flashover in AIS switchgear and promptly isolate the faulty section. Simultaneously, TNB's 11 kV project injections aim to enhance the overall reliability of the system.

In the context of the asset replacement program, TNB is focusing on the replacement of aging and high-risk installations that have the potential to trigger a substantial number of breakdowns, impacting a significant customer base. This category encompasses assets such as critical MV cable sections, including oil-filled cables, as well as high-risk PILC and XLPE cables.

To further elevate SAIDI performance, TNB has amplified its deployment of the Distribution Automation (DA) Project. This initiative facilitates enhanced visibility of the distribution network at the Control Centre. By leveraging SCADA technology at the Control Centre and integrating SCADA capabilities at substations, the Control Centre now possesses real-time monitoring capabilities for field equipment in substations, allowing for remote control to isolate faults and swiftly restore power in the event of an unplanned outage. Detailed explanation on this initiatives are available in Dimension 1.

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Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Integration

The grid of the future will also enable users themselves to distribute energy back to the grid, providing new sustainable energy sources to those that need it.
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DIMENSION 4: DER INTEGRATION

4 (A). MANAGEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES (DER)

In addition to being a network operator, TNB actively takes on the role of a facilitator in energy integration and an enabler of customer empowerment. This proactive approach aligns with TNB's energy management vision and the evolving landscape of a future grid, where the seamless integration of distributed energy resources (DER) is essential. These DER sources, including solar photovoltaic, biomass, biogas, and small hydro, must seamlessly connect to the distribution network to ensure the efficient distribution of the energy they contribute to the system.

Guidelines and regulations are pivotal in governing the deployment and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in Malaysia. They serve to promote DER growth, uphold safety and reliability, and optimize the grid's efficiency. Moreover, these regulations establish a well-defined framework that empowers stakeholders—ranging from consumers and businesses to utilities and policymakers—to navigate the evolving DER landscape effectively.

TNB collaborates closely with relevant authorities to craft comprehensive guidelines that balance network safety and reliability with the facilitation of increased DER integration. This collaborative effort not only guarantees the operational integrity of the network but also promotes the smooth adoption and integration of DER, thereby fostering a more sustainable and resilient energy ecosystem. The guidelines are meticulously structured to correspond to specific schemes, each tailored to address unique aspects and requirements within the energy sector. This categorization provides users with an organized and tailored approach, making it easier to access and understand the specific recommendations, prerequisites, and best practices associated with each scheme. You can access these guidelines through the following links:

LSS Guidelines Guidelines on Large Scale Solar Photovoltaic Plant for Connection to Electricity Networks [Electricity Supply Act (Amendment) 2015 (Act A1501)]
NEM Guidlines Guidelines for Solar Photovoltaic Installation Under The Programme of NEM Rakyat and NEM GoMEn in Penisular Malaysia
Guidelines for Solar Photovoltaic Installation Under The NOVA Programme in Penisular Malaysia
Self-Consumption Guidelines Guidelines on The Connection of Solar Photovoltaic Installation for Self-Consumption
Corporate Green Power Program (GCPP) Information Guide for Corporate Green Power Program (GCPP)
New Enhance Dispatch Arrangement Guidelines for New Enhanced Dispatch Arrangement
Feed In Tarrif Guidelines Guidelines and Determinations of The Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia

Table 4A 1: Guidelines Links

4 (B). DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES (DER) FACILITATION THROUGH MYTNB

TNB has embarked on a proactive and customer-centric journey, providing complimentary consultation services through the highly accessible myTNB web portal. This platform is thoughtfully engineered to empower customers who are enthusiastic about embracing rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, helping them make well-informed decisions. Our outreach initiative is driven by a dedicated mission to equip customers with invaluable insights and knowledge, fostering their understanding of the intricacies surrounding Renewable Energy (RE) systems installation.

The myTNB web portal stands as an invaluable resource for our customers, offering a wealth of information and services aimed at empowering them in their journey towards adopting Renewable Energy (RE) solutions. Within this user-friendly platform, customers can explore the following aspects of RE:

Figure 4A.1: myTNB Web Portal

Benefits of Renewable Energy (RE) Gain a comprehensive understanding of the myriad advantages and the positive environmental impact associated with embracing RE solutions. These encompass the reduction of carbon footprints, cost savings on energy expenditures, and a significant contribution to a cleaner, more sustainable energy future.
Type of RE Connection Schemes Access detailed information on a range of RE connection schemes, allowing customers to select the one that aligns most seamlessly with their individual requirements and preferences.
Green Energy Products

Explore a diverse array of green energy products and services on offer, providing the flexibility to choose those that best match your goals and specifications.

Available RE Programs

The myTNB portal offers an extensive overview of diverse RE programs, granting customers the freedom to select from a wide array of options. These programs encompass

Solar Energy Purchase Detailed insights into purchasing solar energy derived from solar farm projects.
Net Energy Metering (NEM) Guidance on harnessing NEM to achieve energy cost savings.
Self-Consumption Scheme (SelCo) A comprehensive look at the scheme tailored for customers who prefer self-consumption.
Feed-In Tariff (FiT) Information on how to capitalize on the FiT program for solar PV systems.
Large Scale Solar (LSS) In-depth knowledge about large-scale solar projects and associated opportunities.
New Enhanced Dispatch Arrangement (NEDA) Insights into the enhanced dispatch arrangement, ensuring a more efficient and reliable energy supply.

Table 4A 2: Aspects of RE that are available at MyTNB web Portal

Through the myTNB web portal, TNB's commitment to providing comprehensive resources and consultation services becomes evident. This commitment ensures that our customers are not only well-informed but also fully equipped to make educated decisions regarding their RE installation projects. In essence, we empower our customers to play an active role in the transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy solutions.

Figure 4A.2: Renewable Energy (RE) services in the MyTNB Portal

 

For DER applicants, the journey towards approval is made straightforward and efficient, guided by a clear four-step process:

  • Step 1: Define Your Renewable Energy Scheme - Select the most suitable connection process based on your chosen scheme.
  • Step 2: Identify Technical Study Requirements and Apply Online If Necessary - If your connection application necessitates a technical study, you can seamlessly submit your application through the MyTNB Portal. This portal simplifies the process, allowing you to submit your request, make payments, and access completed reports with ease.
  • Step 3: Obtain Approval from the Relevant Authority - Secure the necessary approval from the relevant authority in accordance with your chosen scheme.
  • Step 4: Execute a Power Purchase Agreement or Complete Registration - Once approval is granted, customers proceed to enter into a power purchase agreement outlining the ongoing connection of their facility to our distribution system. For self-consumption purposes, registration is the sole requirement.

With the myTNB web portal and this structured four-step process, TNB strives to ensure that our customers have the tools and knowledge needed to navigate the path to cleaner and more sustainable energy with confidence and ease. To explore the myTNB web portal platform, click here.

4 (C). TECHNICAL STUDY ASSESSMENT FACILITATION (FEASIBILITY STUDY)

The technical study assessment, often referred to as a feasibility study, plays a crucial role in the integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) into the electrical grid. Its primary objectives are to ensure safety, reliability, efficiency, and to maximize the economic and environmental advantages of distributed energy resources. To achieve these goals, TNB has established a comprehensive process that engages both consumers and the TNB team, ultimately enhancing the overall customer experience.

This process leverages the integration of the myTNB platform with the Green Energy Management System (GEMS), offering several advantages. Applicants can conveniently track and monitor their requests while staying updated on the progress. The integrated system not only improves user experience by providing valuable insights into associated fees and estimated timelines but also guarantees timely communication from TNB regarding the status of their reports.

GEMS operates by notifying the designated Person in Charge (PIC) in line with specific tasks, advancing to the subsequent task once the current one is complete. Upon report finalization, the Service Provider receives both a notification and an email. This setup fosters transparency throughout the process, creating an efficient tracking system that benefits all stakeholders involved.

Figure 4C.1: Process layer and tracking are based on the department involves in GEMS

Customers are able to request for technical study via myTNB portal

Figure 4C.2: Customer application to request for technical study

Figure 4C.3: Customer application for technical study

4 (D). DISTRIBUTED GENERATION (DG) HOSTING CAPACITY FOR DER 

As TNB strives to achieve its target of attaining a 31% RE penetration target by 2025, in 2022, TNB made a significant leap towards promoting the proactive integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Its a digital platform of Nodal Points as a preliminary guide for new projects to the RE developers. TNB introduced a groundbreaking tool - the Distributed Generation (DG) Hosting Capacity web portal. This innovative platform, equipped with a map-based view, allows potential DER developers and stakeholders to effortlessly identify available DER connection points and assess the associated capacity visibility within the Medium Voltage distribution network for Distributed Generation. The user-friendly DG Hosting Capacity map is made accessible to both internal TNB users and external parties, including RE developers, through a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform.

The first phase of the DG Hosting Capacity Map project was initiated in March 2021 and successfully completed in October 2021. During this initial phase, the system was exclusively designed for internal use within TNB. Subsequently, the project proceeded to its second phase, commencing in November 2021, and reaching completion on June 27, 2022, making it accessible to the public.

Enhanced Initiatives in 2023

In 2023, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), in collaboration with the Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia (SEDA), embarked on an initiative to streamline the process of connecting to Renewable Energy (RE) sources. A central aspect of this initiative is the release of a comprehensive list outlining the hosting capacity of available substations, termed Nodal Points. These Nodal Points play a pivotal role as reference points for new RE projects looking to connect to TNB's distribution network grid, specifically at medium voltage levels (33kV and 11kV). They play a crucial role in facilitating connections for projects operating under the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and Net Energy Metering (NEM) programs (Refer to Figure 4D.1).

Table 4D.1: Nodal points for DG is publicly available in tabular format

Figure 4D.1: SEDA website shows TNB Nodal Points info

The introduction of an advanced and interactive tool, the Distributed Generation (DG) Hosting Capacity Map, represented a significant milestone in mid-2022. Integrated into the Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, it transitioned from a simple list of Nodal Points to a dynamic visual representation on a geographical map, covering the medium voltage network.

The Nodal Points serve as the foundational elements for evaluating the hosting capacity of the TNB distribution grid for prospective renewable energy (RE) connections. Additionally, in mid-2022, TNB introduced a more advanced and interactive analysis tool called the Distributed Generation (DG) Hosting Capacity Map as part of the GIS Distribution Network (GISDN) Project. This DG Hosting Capacity Map is integrated into the Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, which represents a transition from the previous list of Nodal Points to a visual representation on a geographical map, now encompassing the medium voltage network.

This GIS-based platform offers enhanced visibility and facilitates the identification of the nearest potential substation for connecting new RE sources. For instance, it assists in determining which substation has the capacity to accommodate a specific amount of RE development at a given location and time, all while adhering to the existing network conditions and operational criteria. This ensures that critical factors such as safety, fault levels, voltage, power quality, and reliability are not adversely affected by the introduction of new renewable energy resources.

Using the DG Hosting Capacity Map, the public such as renewable energy developers have the ability to pinpoint Nodal Points by entering specific parameters, including the desired capacity in megawatts (MW), the prospective location for their new renewable energy project, the radius from that location, and the type of distributed generation (DG) they plan to employ. In the illustrative scenario, as depicted in Figure 4D.2 and Figure 4D.3, RE developers or members of the public can readily search for and access information regarding the hosting capacity for solar-type DG systems within the boundaries of the Langkawi district or within a 30-kilometer radius of a given coordinate or address, serving as an initial connection point for their proposed DG facility.

Figure 4D.2: The searching functionality of the Hosting Capacity Map by district selection for the public

 

Figure 4D.3: The searching functionality of the Hosting Capacity Map by coordinate / address for the public users

Benefits of DG Hosting Capacity Map

The DG Hosting Capacity Map offers several advantages:

  • Facilitates swift and efficient DG interconnections, aligning with the Malaysian Government's goal to accelerate RE deployment.
  • Supports TNB's commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050, in line with the Government's ambitious targets.
  • Addresses environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks related to assets and integrates advanced ESG measures into operations.
  • Promises improved financial performance and a substantial return on investment (ROI) through reduced on-site visits and minimized reliance on TNB personnel.
  • This initiative enhances data transparency and boosts DG systems' productivity through automated data extraction, processing, and analytics.

To explore the DG Hosting Capacity map for distributed generation via GIS, click here. It is now also accessible through mobile devices.

Figure 4D.4: Winner for Power Energy Awards in Transmission and Distribution Network Project of the Year Category

TNB has also achieved recognition as the winner of Power Energy Awards for Transmission and Distribution Network Project of the Year Category in the ENLIT Asia Conference in November 2023 based on a paper submission entitled “Large-Scale Low Voltage Asset and Network Mapping in Malaysia by Embarking on the Technology of Mobile Mapping System”.

4 (E). CORPORATE GREEN POWER PROGRAMME (CGPP)

The Corporate Green Power Programme (CGPP) is a forward-looking initiative established by the Government to create an opportunity for business entities to actively participate in the promotion and utilization of renewable energy within their business operations. This program responds to the increasing number of electricity consumers who are committed to achieving their Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) targets. At its core, the CGPP operates as a mechanism for virtual power purchase agreements, effectively harnessing the existing New Enhanced Dispatch Arrangement (NEDA) framework.

Figure 4E.1: Overview of Corporate Green Power Programme framework

One of the primary facets of the CGPP is its role in fostering collaboration between renewable energy producers, particularly in the field of solar power, and corporate consumers who are seeking to enhance their corporate image while actively contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This symbiotic partnership enables the sale and purchase of renewable energy resources under mutually agreed terms and conditions. Here's how it works:

Facilitation of Solar Power Producers

TNB, through the CGPP, offers free consultation services to all solar power producers who are interested in taking part in the development of solar photovoltaic plants. This service not only provides invaluable guidance but also ensures that these producers have access to the necessary resources and knowledge required for the successful establishment of solar energy generation facilities. They can also view the available quota of renewable energy under this Corporate Green Power Programme.

Virtual Sale and Purchase Agreement

Once the solar power producers are ready to harness their energy resources, the CGPP facilitates a virtual sale and purchase agreement. Under this arrangement, corporate consumers can purchase the renewable energy generated by these solar facilities under predefined terms and conditions. This enables businesses to tap into clean energy sources for their operations, aligning with their sustainability goals.

Enhancing Corporate Image

By participating in the CGPP, corporate consumers enhance their corporate image and reputation as responsible and environmentally conscious entities. The use of renewable energy sources showcases their commitment to sustainability and mitigating the impact of their operations on the environment, which is a fundamental aspect of ESG principles.

Application for Connection

Solar power producers interested in joining the program can obtain the necessary applications through TNB. The application process allows them to choose the most suitable connection options, whether at the distribution or transmission level. This flexibility ensures that a wide range of renewable energy producers can participate, regardless of their scale or specific needs.

Figure 4E.2: Single Buyer Website on CGPP

TNB's Active Involvement

In addition to facilitating this program, TNB actively participates in the CGPP to accelerate the integration of solar-powered generation into the grid system. As part of its commitment to sustainability and promoting renewable energy, TNB has secured a substantial capacity of approximately 90MW in solar generation. This capacity includes both wholly-owned facilities (30MW) and joint ventures (60MW). These endeavours are crucial not only for expanding the solar energy sector but also for encouraging business entities to collaboratively develop renewable energy resources, in line with mutually agreed terms and conditions with corporate consumers. By playing a central role in the CGPP, TNB demonstrates its dedication to environmental stewardship, sustainability, and the responsible use of energy resources.

Ultimately, the CGPP serves as a pivotal program that not only supports businesses in achieving their ESG targets but also propels the growth of renewable energy production, significantly reducing carbon emissions and contributing to a more sustainable and environmentally conscious energy landscape.

To view more details of CGPP, visit Single Buyer.

4 (F). ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - SMART ENERGY MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE (SEMI)

The Smart Energy Management Infrastructure (SEMI) project assumes a pivotal role in the advancement of TNB's dedication to achieving Malaysia's Energy Transition objectives. With its central objective focused on serving as an Energy Transition Facilitator within the Distribution Network (DN), SEMI is committed to cultivating comprehensive proficiencies within the two core domains of the DN Smart Utility: Energy Management and Customer Empowerment.

SEMI epitomizes an innovative system, intricately designed to elevate the effectiveness and intelligence of energy distribution. By amalgamating a diverse array of technologies and capabilities, SEMI extends its influence not only to the Distribution Network (DN) but also actively engages customers and pertinent stakeholders in the energy transition process. It provides tangible advantages, including heightened reliability, cost-efficiency, and a steadfast commitment to sustainability.

Illustrated in Figure 1, SEMI functions as an advanced energy management system, entrusted with the tasks of receiving, scrutinizing, and processing data sourced from Distributed Energy Resources (DER) visibility enablers. Moreover, it delivers invaluable insights and foresight concerning DER connectivity, generation, and availability. This comprehensive process includes a meticulous evaluation of the DN's system network, ensuring the highest degree of system stability and reliability.

Figure 4F.1: SEMI functionalities in supporting DER Planning & Operations

Some of initial SEMI functionalities explained:

1. DER Visibility Management

Under the umbrella of DER Visibility Management, SEMI serves as a singular platform that offers comprehensive visibility of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) seamlessly connected to the Distribution Network (DN). This encompasses all relevant information, including the connected feeder, precise location, energy generation and load profiles, and an aggregated perspective of DER profiles. This wealth of information is made accessible through a user-friendly dashboard and a convenient topology view.

Additionally, SEMI incorporates a Renewable Energy (RE) registration portal, a valuable tool to streamline the often intricate RE registration process. This portal ensures the automated capture of data for new DER installations, facilitating a more efficient and organized approach.

2. DER Network Planning

To bolster network planning, SEMI provides a suite of essential tools that enable simulation for assessing and forecasting the impact of DERs. This includes Power Quality (PQ) simulations, growth and hosting capacity analyses, and the seamless integration of DERs into system planning. The incorporation of locational DER hotspot analysis further enhances the planning process, offering a more precise understanding of where DERs will have the greatest influence.

3. DER Integration & Aggregation Management

At the core of our smart energy management infrastructure, the DER integration component stands as a pivotal foundation, drawing inspiration from globally successful models such as the Active Network Management (ANM) project in UKPN. Fuelled by the integration of advanced algorithms and Artificial Intelligence, SEMI's sophisticated system operates in real-time, orchestrating the optimal generation, distribution, and consumption of energy.

This innovative system expertly navigates the complexities of modern energy management, effectively balancing the ebb and flow of renewable energy sources, adapting to shifting demand patterns, and dynamically orchestrating energy flows. The outcome is a substantial reduction in energy wastage and the maximization of efficiency. Moreover, SEMI opens the door to dynamic hosting capacity, enabling a Flexible Interconnection Scheme, providing customers with a diverse range of options, and actively fostering the expansion of Renewable Energy (RE). This commitment to innovation extends to addressing grid congestion, with SEMI introducing trials for Demand & Supply Side Flexibility, ensuring the harmony and efficiency of the energy network.

The combined benefits of these features are profound:

  • Enhanced Grid Stability: Through its dynamic approach to supply and demand, DER integration significantly minimizes grid instability and power fluctuations.
  • Increased Utilization of Renewable Energy: By seamlessly optimizing the incorporation of renewable sources like solar PV, DER ensures a higher penetration of clean energy into the grid. This not only promotes sustainability but also advances our collective transition towards a greener energy landscape.
4. DN Customer Self-Service Portal & ET Open Data Portal

SEMI presents a Customer Self-Service Portal for DN customers. This portal is designed to empower customers by providing access to DN-related service information, including invaluable Energy Insights. Customers can delve into details related to optimal Time of Use (TOU) and monitor the performance of their connected DERs.

Furthermore, SEMI contributes to the broader energy ecosystem through the Energy Transition Open Data Portal. This initiative aims to share Energy Transition-related data with a wide array of stakeholders, including internal users, local governments, Smart City developers, businesses, consumers, and the energy industry.

5. EV & Energy Storage Management

SEMI is committed to providing visibility within the Electric Vehicle (EV) ecosystem, offering insights into charger and storage locations, charging patterns, and EV hotspots. With EV growth forecasting and performance analysis, SEMI ensures a seamless and reliable supply for EV chargers. It also contributes to optimal Time of Use (TOU) for charging, benefiting both customers and the overall energy grid.

6. Current & Future Offerings for Planners & Operations

For DER planners and operations, our advanced system offers a comprehensive suite of tools and features that streamline various activities. The DER Management Dashboard serves as a central hub, consolidating data sources and providing centralized visibility, monitoring, and planning capabilities for DER assets at all levels. Additionally, our DER registration portal simplifies the RE registration process, ensuring the capture and streamlining of vital information. To mitigate gaps in visibility regarding unregistered DER such as Solar PV and EV chargers, we employ LV Analytics.

Figure 4F.2: SEMI Key Functions

One of our standout features is the real-time monitoring of load and generation within localized communities or areas. This empowers energy management systems and enhances the decision-making process. Furthermore, we provide planning tools that enable network planning, offering capabilities for DER impact forecasting and assessment, PQ simulation, growth and hosting capacity analysis, and locational DER hotspot analysis. These tools cater to a variety of stakeholders:

For DN planners, this means easier and faster planning, ensuring that every step of the process is as efficient as possible.

Head of Zone (HOZA) and operation teams benefit from full visibility of all connected Solar PV up to the LV level, offering a more comprehensive understanding of the system's performance.

Customers can expect optimal DER performance and supply quality, providing a superior experience.
Incorporating these tools into your DER planning and operations processes ensures smoother and more informed decision-making, enhancing the efficiency and quality of your operations while benefiting a wide range of stakeholders.

Figure 4F.3: DER Dashboard

TNB Distribution has also achieved recognition through SEMI project as ‘Energy Advocate of the Year” award winner in the ENLIT Asia event in Bangkok in September 2022 for Uplifting TNB Distribution Network towards Energy Transition.

 

Figure 4F.4: SEMI Award – Energy Advocate of the Year Award 2022

4 (G). ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS

Utility Scale Battery Energy Storage System

In response to the escalating demand and the goal of reaching the recommended solar penetration limit of 6,036 MW by 2025, TNB is embarking on a significant initiative—the deployment of Utility Scale Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS). This move is not only vital for accommodating the increasing solar capacity but also crucial for ensuring the security, reliability, and stability of the grid.

Grid Division, one of TNB’s core division, plans to commence the first Utility Scale BESS installations in 2024 and target completion by 2025. This timeline reflects our commitment to staying ahead of the curve in the rapidly evolving energy landscape. This proactive approach aligns seamlessly with the Malaysian Government's commitment to achieving approximately 70% renewable energy capacity by 2050, as outlined in the Malaysia Energy Transition Outlook.

The growing demand for renewable energy, including the development of solar parks and cross-border renewable energy export, underscores the urgency of deploying BESS to meet these energy needs. Utility Scale BESS deployment brings multiple advantages to the grid system. It mitigates frequency stability issues during the loss of conventional generators or solar plants by providing fast frequency response. Additionally, BESS allows for load shifting and peak load shaving, effectively smoothing out fluctuations in solar power output, thus increasing its reliability and predictability.

TNB's recommendation of BESS units, strategically located in areas with sufficient land space and high solar irradiance, positions them to facilitate future BESS framework development. These locations can also utilize additional BESS functions to relieve congestion on existing networks. Furthermore, BESS brings additional benefits such as deferring transmission upgrades, providing spinning reserves, system voltage control, inertia response, and system frequency regulation. These functions enhance grid flexibility and stability, potentially translating to cost savings in the long term.

TNB’s proactive approach to deploying Utility Scale BESS in the near future demonstrates our commitment to secure and reliable renewable energy integration. It not only ensures grid stability but also aligns with future RE Zone frameworks, optimizing investments for a sustainable, secure, and cost-effective energy future in Malaysia.

Community Energy Storage Solutions (CESS)

In line with TNB vision of developing the Smart Utilty and enabling the Government’s National Energy Transition Roadmap agenda, three (3) Community Energy Storage System (CESS) projects were successfully implemented using battery (Lithium Ion) storage technology. The aim is to harness the use of battery storage system for performing peak shaving, power ramping, frequency stability, and islanding functions for TNB’s distribution networks. The CESS system installed provides functions such as reducing transformers peak loads and power limiting/smoothing for power fluctuation mitigations. A CESS Business Model was also developed as part of the research project that provides TNB for potential capability building in the energy storage area.

System Designation

System Capacity Connection Operation Functionality
CESS1 - Jelutong, Pulau Pinang Lithium Ion 50 kW/70 kWh 400 V Peak Shaving Mode Reduction in the feeder/transformer peak load.
CESS2 - Johor Bharu, Johor Lithium Ion 50 kW/156 kWh
CESS3 - Bukit Rambai, Melaka Lithium Ion 280 kW/170 kWh Renewables Ramping/ Voltage Regulation Mode Smoothing needed for voltage swing mitigation.

Table 4G.1: TNB CESS Projects

CESS in Pulau Pinang & Johor operated as a peak shaving while CESS in Melaka operated as a renewable energy ramping. Through peak shaving, there has been a 10% reduction in transformer peak loading at the installed CESS substation while through RE smoothing, it has helped DN to achieve a power smoothing for power fluctuation mitigation caused by the RE.

In order to control system maximum demand, energy efficiency, and voltage regulation, as well as act as more effective community-scale energy storage units, TNB identify and install batteries throughout the grid in locations and towns where establishing large substations may be impractical. Additionally, it complements energy produced from renewable resources.

Figure 4G.1: CESS1 (Left), CESS2 (Center) and CESS3 (Right)

Other than that, TNB DN through UNITEN has perform research on ESS hotspot installation locations, ESS capacity that DN should install & ESS mode of operation/usage before a detailed masterplan been developed for ESS future plan. UNITEN has proposed to install 250 kW/ 500 kWh ESS at UNITEN which can be aggregated by VPP technology.

The direct benefit of ESS is the reduction of maximum demand and energy arbitrage. With solar plant connected to the customer, the energy storage operator can also store the energy directly from solar, as an alternative to charging the energy storage at night using off-peak tariff. An intelligent energy management system that could be used to predict the volatility of next day weather is required to decide whether charging energy at night is required with respect to the probability of rain the following day.

On the consumer side, each of the energy storage is small, capped and limited by the consumer power system constraints (cable and transformer capacities), while power plants which could make an impact at the grid system side is big in terms of size, estimated to be at least 100 MW. Therefore, for each of the small energy storage to have a role in the spinning result and other functionalities, these energy storages need to be accumulated, by an aggregator system.

TNB also has made good progress in the TNBR-Korean Consortium Virtual Power Plant (VPP) joint research programme, which started in 2018. The programme explores the VPP software technology platform and application, and its associated business model via the demonstration of aggregated ESS functions. The project also explores joint Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Commissioning (EPCC) development between TNB and the Korean Consortium to optimise ESS and VPP business models.

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Green Energy

The grid of the future allows for seamless adoption of green energy into the grid, allowing us to reduce the country’s carbon footprint, encouraging more steps towards a greener future.
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DIMENSION 5: GREEN ENERGY

5 (A). CURRENT GREEN INITIATIVES

The government of Malaysia has recently unveiled the National Energy Transition Roadmap (NETR). This roadmap serves as a comprehensive guide to Malaysia's commitment to building a sustainable and inclusive energy system for the future.

The initial part of NETR unveils ten flagship catalyst projects. These projects are strategically aligned with six key energy transition levers, designed to drive the country's energy transformation forward.
Moving on to the second segment, NETR introduces the concept of Responsible Transition (RT). This includes a focus on two crucial elements: the grand vision for energy transition and the macro position that Malaysia aims to attain. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of five cross-cutting enablers that will play a pivotal role in achieving these transition objectives.

NETR is a critical tool in navigating the complexities of a large-scale energy transition. It takes Malaysia from its roots in a traditional fossil fuel-based economy and sets a course toward a high-value, green economy. This transformation is not just about energy; it's about the future of the nation and its commitment to sustainability and inclusivity.

Figure 5A.1: NETR Launching and 10 catalyst flagship projects

Figure 5A.2: TNB’s commitment on NETR. Full article can be found here.

In accelerating the transition, TNB has identified to be part of the ten (10) flagships that being announced namely Renewable Energy Zone (RE Zone). The revised target stated in NETR has seen the increase for installed RE capacity from 40% in 2040 to 70% by 2050.

Under the RE Zone, TNB has facilitate free consultation available to all champion which consolidate of Khazanah Nasional Berhad and Sime Darby Property including TNB developing the game changer of the transition for renewable energy resources.

These plans are contributing about approximately approaching 4GW of renewable energy resources (i.e., Solar and etc) towards achieving the Net Zero Emission by 2050 locally and globally. Apart from the contribution, TNB also having collaboration with PETRONAS in decarbonising TNB generation plants by having green hydrogen and ammonia co-firing. Under this flagship, TNB has been nominated as the champion to deliver in supporting the NETR.

At TNB, we recognize that the journey towards transitioning to cleaner sources of energy is one that the nation must embark on together. As a key electricity and utility provider, we empower our customers to join the energy transition journey and become prosumers through a variety of innovative products and programs. Our 2022 key highlights are in Table 5A.1.

TNB recognizes that the journey towards transitioning to cleaner sources of energy is one that the nation must embark on together. TNB's key highlights for 2022 include:

Initiatives Main Strategies Major Initiatives
Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program A mechanism for RE asset owners to export solar energy produced to TNB grid at a fixed price. 9,481 FiT projects have been commissioned with an installed capacity of 533.77MW.
Net Energy Metering (NEM) scheme Allows customers in Peninsular Malaysia to export excess energy produced from their solar PV systems back to the grid. 11,792 NEM participants making up a total capacity of 794.19MW.
Malaysia Renewable Energy Certificate (mREC) Malaysia Green Attribute Tracking System (mGATS) is a national marketplace for Malaysia Renewable Energy Certificate (mREC). Sales of unbundled RECs from LSS and hydroelectric plants stopped in November 2021 to make way for the new Green Electricity Tariff (GET) program. In 2022, 612,361MWh of mRECs have been contracted.
myGreen+ scheme myGreen+ is a green energy tariff program that allows customers the option to purchase green energy without having to spend on the high initial investment of rooftop solar or other forms of RE system installations. Subscriptions are currently sold in 100kWh blocks of RE electricity at 8 sen/kWh. Moving forward, this initiative will be replaced by GET. 256 customers subscribed to 253.30MWh of RE electricity in 2021 through myGreen+.
Green Electricity Tariff (GET) - New initiative This program was introduced as an option to enable electricity consumers to indirectly purchase green electricity without having to spend on the high initial investment of RE system installations. All consumers are eligible for the GET program which is available in 100kWh blocks for residential consumers and 1,000kWh blocks for non-residential consumers at a rate of 3.7 sen/kWh. Subscriptions for GET program began on 1st December 2021 for early reservation and will officially commence on 1st January 2022. As of 31st December 2021, 232,368MWh has been subscribed.

   Table 5A.1: Key highlights on customer empowerment initiatives as highlighted in TNB’s Integrated Annual Report FY2022

 

 

5 (B). CURRENT RENEWABLE ENERGY PENETRATION

Domestically, we will focus on the development of large hydro, solar rooftop, and dispatchable RE capacities. In 2022, TNB produced a total of 9,167.8 GWh from renewable energy sources. Total renewable energy (RE) made up 8.7% of the total electricity sent out in 2022. This was an increase from the 7.94% in 2021 and demonstrates our commitment to RE making up 40% of our total capacity mix by 2025.

Solar

1. Large Scale Solar (LSS)

Since our Reimagining TNB campaign in 2016, we have invested substantially in renewable energy through our participation in LSS programs, both locally and internationally, to contribute toward low carbon energy generation. Meanwhile TNB Renewables Sdn. Bhd. has been shortlisted for the development of 50MW of the fourth large-scale solar (LSS4) at Mentari. Currently, 2 LSS farms have been launched and are now operational. The first, is in Sepang with a generating capacity of 50MW, which has been running since 2017, and the second is in Bukit Selambau, Kedah, being operational since 2019 with a generating capacity of 30MW.

2. GSPARX

TNB’s wholly-owned subsidiary GSPARX continued to grow the sales of its self-generation solar solutions under the Net Energy Metering (NEM) and Supply Agreement for Renewable Energy (SARE) schemes. Beginning from NEM 2.0 and continuing to NEM 3.0 (NEM Rakyat) launched in 2021, GSPARX registered a total of 951 domestic/residential customers to date, bringing the total capacity to 8.25MW. Meanwhile, for the commercial, industrial, and government segments, GSPARX registers a total capacity of 116.61MW from 204 customers as compared to 81MWp in 2020. The commercial and industrial customers would benefit from NEM NOVA and self-consumption schemes while the government segment will enjoy the special NEM GoMEN scheme.

GSPARX had also entered into a collaborative agreement with Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) on R&D and knowledge sharing in the field of solar energy. As part of the collaboration, GSPARX completed the solar installation of 6.9MW at UTHM’s main campus, making it the single largest solar installation at a public institution of higher learning. We are also working together with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (KeTSA) to install more solar PV solutions on government buildings through pilot projects consisting of government agencies, local councils, and schools.

Find out more about GSPARX here.

3. Hybrid Hydro-Floating Solar (HHFS)

Under the National Energy Transition Roadmap (NETR) Part 1 which was launched in August 2023, the hybrid hydro-floating solar (HFFS) project will be championed by TNB with a total installed capacity of 2500MW. The HHFS project is expected to be executed between 2023 to 2040 and it was outlined under the 10 flagship catalyst projects and impact initiatives based on six (6) energy transition levers. The project is expected to be executed in four (4) phases up to 2040 and will be located at TNB hydro dam reservoirs. TNB Power Generation Sdn Bhd (TNB Genco), a wholly-owned subsidiary TNB will spearhead the construction of a 230MW capacity installation under Phase 1 at the Temenggor and Chenderoh hydro plant reservoirs, as part of the 2500MW pipeline. The project is expected to be completed by late 2025 for Phase 1.

Hydro

1. Hydroelectric Power Plant

As of 2022, TNB Genco owns, manages and operates 2536.1MW of large hydro portfolio, consisting of three (3) hydroelectric schemes of Sungai Perak, Kenyir and Cameron Highlands power stations. The hydroelectric plants consist of both run-of-the-river (where there is no, or limited, water storage) and pondage plants (which have water storage facilities). In Cameron Highlands, TNB Genco also owns and operates five (5) mini-hydro plants with a combined capacity of 11.9MW.

In support of TNB's expansion of its low-carbon portfolio, TNB Genco is currently developing a Nenggiri hydro plant in Gua Musang, Kelantan with a total project cost of RM5 billion. This 300MW plant is expected to achieve commercial operations by 2027 and will mitigate 0.3 million tonnes CO2 annually. Furthermore, the Energy Commission has granted approval for the TNB’s Hydro-Life Extension Programme for six (6) stations in the Sungai Perak scheme with an investment of RM5.8 billion. Overall, these domestic green plant-up projects reflect TNB’s commitment in expanding its renewable energy portfolio in accelerating a responsible energy transition for a sustainable future.

Figure 5B.1 Artist Impression: Nenggiri Hydroelectric power station

2. DN Connected Mini Hydro for Increased Efficiency via Greener Energy Sources

The Distribution Network presently possesses a fleet of 20 Mini Hydro facilities, featuring combine capacity of 9,863 kW. This network has yielded a remarkable 18,020 MWh of hydroelectric power. These Mini Hydro plants harness the power of flowing water to generate electricity, a process that not only significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also contributes to a diversified and resilient energy portfolio.

One of the key benefits of this expansive Mini Hydro network is its ability to provide consistent and reliable energy, which can play a pivotal role in grid stability. Moreover, it lessens the dependency on conventional, carbon-intensive energy sources, thereby reducing the environmental impact and fostering cleaner and more sustainable energy practices. The utilization of Mini Hydro technology in these facilities aligns with global efforts to transition towards greener energy alternatives, ensuring a more sustainable and environmentally responsible energy future.

Figure 5B.2: Summary of Mini Hydro Stations in Distribution Network

International Footprint

On the international front, TNB has launched Vantage RE Ltd, a RE investment and asset management company to manage TNB’s RE assets in the UK and Europe. In October 2021, Vantage RE purchased a 49% stake in Blyth Offshore Demonstrator Limited (BODL), marking TNB’s maiden entry into the international offshore wind market. BODL currently owns offshore wind assets with a total installed capacity of 41.5MW, as well as development rights for a 58.4MW floating offshore wind project. This acquisition is a statement of TNB's intent to expand its international RE portfolio, and also facilitates greater collaboration and knowledge exchange with BODL’s majority shareholder, EDF Renewables (EDFR).

Energy Efficiency with LED Streetlights

Street lighting serves a multitude of vital functions for the general public. It plays a pivotal role in enhancing public safety, extending the usability of public spaces, and augmenting the overall quality of life. By artificially prolonging the hours of illumination, it facilitates social and economic activities, contributing to community well-being. Additionally, street lighting significantly improves safety conditions for motorists, cyclists, and pedestrians alike.

The LED Relamping Project was established with the primary objective of systematically replacing the existing High Pressure Sodium Vapor (HPSV) lantern sets on TNB's utility poles with state-of-the-art LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lanterns. The fundamental aim of this project is to provide brighter and more energy-efficient lighting, thereby enhancing public safety in the areas served. Moreover, the project seeks to achieve a marked reduction in streetlight failures as compared to the conventional HPSV streetlights, ultimately minimizing recurrent breakdowns in the same lighting units. By adopting this project, which has begun in RP2, TNB has seen a gradual drop in streetlight outages and streetlight-related complaints. This shift signifies a significant advancement in our approach to public lighting services.

The project has garnered substantial public and local authority support for the implementation of LED streetlights, underscoring the appreciation for this modernized and more efficient lighting solution.

Figure 5B.3: The Replacement of HPSV to LED Street Lighting

Figure 5B.4: Benefits of LED Relamping

 As of August 2023, LED Relamping Project has installed a total of 596,779 LED units nationwide, particularly at:

Figure 5B.5: Installation by cities (2018-2022)

Highlights & Benefits Obtained

The observed benefits from the LED relamping project are:

  • Reduction of carbon dioxide emission (CO2) by estimated of 30%.

The LED Street Lighting (~90W) consume less electricity than HPSV Street Lighting (150W).

  • Local council electricity bill savings by 30% - 40%.

LED streetlights in general consume much less energy than HPSV.

Figure 5B.6: Reduction in term of kWh between HPSV (left) and LED (right)

  • Enhanced customer experience with better and brighter lights and improved safety.

LED streetlights purportedly provide a higher quality of light measured by the Colour Rendering Index (CRI). The CRI is a scale from 0 to 100% indicating how accurate a ‘given' light source is at rendering colour when compared to a reference light source; the higher the CRI, the better the colour rendering ability. It was reported by the City of Los Angeles that in areas with brighter LED lights, crime has dropped.

  • Increase customer satisfaction due to reduction of complaint from street lighting (estimated 40%).

The reduction is primarily driven by installation of new LED streetlights to replace existing streetlights.

  • Increase customer satisfaction contributed by better average repair time (11 hours to 5 hours).

The reduction of outage and customer complaint has improved the average repair time for street lighting.

Figure 5B.7: Trending of customer complaint with the growth of LED Street Lighting

  • Reliable local supply chain security.

The LED installation has spur local economy activities while strengthening local supply chain security. Approximately 72% of supply contract with the value of RM 305 million was awarded to local LED streetlighting supplier.

  • Spur nation economy development.

The LED installation was installed by local competent contractor from around the peninsular Malaysia. The number of competent contractors has grown from 66 during the initial stage to 123 at its peak capacity. Furthermore, the associated job opportunity was created upon establishment of local competent company.

 

5 (C). SMART GREEN ISLAND (PULAU TENAGA HIJAU)


Pulau Tenaga Hijau (PTH) Project is an island electrification project using multiple generation resources that are clean and carbon smart in hopes to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. In addition to that, new energy efficient technologies like Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Energy Management System (EMS) will be introduced in tandem to provide interoperability to interface energy storage and generation systems.

TNB is supplying electricity to the entire island of Pulau Redang and Pulau Perhentian at the moment, using diesel generators of 1,400kW and 2,000kW for Pulau Perhentian and Pulau Redang, respectively. This existing supply does not include hotels, chalets, and resorts, where their supply is provided by private generators with a capacity of 2,724kW in Pulau Perhentian and 5,292kW in Pulau Redang. In addition, it is projected that the demand growth over a 20-year period is to increase from 462kW to 8,690kW in Pulau Perhentian and from 640kW to 8,922kW in Pulau Redang, considering projected load from hotels, chalets and resorts.

Figure 5C.1: Existing TNB Supply at Pulau Perhentian & Pulau Redang

The PTH will feature the adoption of clean energy sources and renewables including from 9MW liquefied natural gas (LNG), 2MW solar PV and small vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), and 2MWh battery energy storage system (BESS). RE will show significant penetration level of 28% in Pulau Perhentian and 34% in Pulau Redang versus the island’s immediate load.

Figure 5C.2: PTH Conceptual Design

In accordance with energy transition timeline in PTH Project, TNB is also expected to maximize solar deployment towards 2027 and beyond by empowering Renewable Energy Programmes in Malaysia to the customers (focus on resort owners) in PTH by means of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). PTH Project is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2040, and as a result, ongoing research efforts are underway to work towards the goal of reaching net zero emissions by 2040.

PTH Project is fundamentally encompasses three main pillars - Reduction of Operational Cost (through Sustainable Energy), Smart Technology and System Reticulation. This project is expected to reap many benefits across different sectors in the country as illustrated on the following page:

Figure 5C.3: PTH benefits’ across different sectors

The main highlights in Pulau Tenaga Hijau in 2023 are as listed below:

  1. Commission of delivery (COD) Renewable Energy (RE) Phase 1A that involves 120kWp solar in the compound of the iconic Masjid Pulau Perhentian.
  2. 100% completion GIS mapping on all existing assets in both Pulau Perhentian and Pulau Redang.
  3. 100% smart meter replacement on all existing customers in both Pulau Perhentian and Pulau Redang.
  4. Active engagements with hoteliers towards achieving 100% electrification using cleaner source of energy by 2027.

Update on Pulau Tioman Green Initiative

The "Tioman Green Initiative" aligns with photovoltaic policy, as TNB has taken proactive measures to promote eco-friendly grid connections. They've successfully deployed a 255 kWp solar photovoltaic system at four locations within their Tioman Island complex, directly linking it to the local TNB grid. In 2022, this system generated an impressive 36 MWh of solar electricity.

Figure 5C.4: Overview of Solar PV location at Tioman Island

Figure 5C.5: 69.36 kWp Solar PV installation at Tioman Jetty

Figure 5C.6: Utilizing TNB compound rooftop for Solar PV installation

Additionally, TNB has installed two 500 kW Mini Hydro systems in Mentawak, aiming to further reduce reliance on diesel generators on Pulau Tioman. These systems employ run-of-the-river hydroelectric technology to harness energy from flowing water, resulting in the generation of 1502 MWh of hydroelectric power in 2022. This initiative underscores TNB's unwavering commitment to sustainable energy practices sand environmental responsibility.

Figure 5C.7: Mini Hydro Station (Mentawak)

5 (D). ELECTRIC VEHICLE FACILITATION

TNB is playing a leading role in driving the adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) in the country through three key strategies:

1. Driving the EV industry through EV policies, advocacy, and regulation.

TNB founded the Zero Emission Vehicle Association (ZEVA), an association that fosters stronger coalitions among EV sector players. TNB is also working with the Energy Commission to co-develop an Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) technical guide to improve the safety and standardize the features of charging stations in Malaysia. Additionally, TNB is working with key government agencies to conduct studies to clarify the economic, social, and environmental benefits of EV adoption in Malaysia. The most recent work is with Ministry of Housing and Local Government to come out with the guidelines of planning for EV Charging Bays, standardizing the procedure to deploy EV chargers across all important relevant authority in all cities in Malaysia.

We recognize that a collaborative approach is necessary for the industry to flourish and have signed several Memorandum of Understanding with various partners, including Sime Darby Motors, SoCAR, and DHL, to collaborate on EV development.

To facilitate EV connections, we have published the EV Connection Guidelines, which includes a dedicated chapter on the interconnection scheme for developers intending to connect EV infrastructure to our network.

Figure 5D.1: A snapshot of the EV interconnection scheme available in the EV Connection Guidelines

2. Investing and developing EV public charging infrastructure.

To promote a low-carbon economy, TNB had partnered with the Malaysian Green Technology and Climate Change Centre (MGTC) and had installed 73 EV charging stations nationwide. TNB also had a few collaborative efforts in the implementation of the Langkawi EV Hub Pilot Project which supports the targeted Langkawi Low Carbon Island 2030 vision. A few EV initiatives as part of the Langkawi Low Carbon Island are to have a comprehensive EV infrastructure like AC and DC chargers throughout the island, and also to have an island-wide EV adoption with the cooperation of public transport, taxi, and e-hailing operators.

As of March 2022, TNB had completed the installation of AC chargers and had the first TNB EV fleet at TNB Langkawi. TNB together with Malaysia Automotive, Robotics, and IoT Institute (MARii) have entered into a strategic partnership to create favourable EV adoption incentives such as income tax exemption for EV purchase, free EV parking, subsidies for private and commercial EV purchases, and many more.

TNB has committed RM90 million to accelerate the EV adoption rate in Malaysia over a duration of 3 years (2022-2024) through the rollout of EV chargers. TNB plans to install a total of 100 chargers over the next three years mainly along major highways and trunk roads to proliferate the number of BEVs in Malaysia while allowing BEV users to travel interstate and address range anxiety. To date TNB has 3 DC Fast Charger station situated across the main highways.

3. Accelerating the EV ecosystem development for economic growth.

To facilitate the installation of public charging infrastructure throughout the country, TNB is offering a GreenLane electricity supply application for Charge Point Operators. This will allow for Charging Point Operators to deploy their chargers seamlessly an at a reduced speed compared to normal process.

TNB is also including EV-related jobs in its Reskilling Program to help prepare the nation's workforce for the energy transition and transportation electrification. Additionally, TNB is forging partnerships with EV ecosystem players from vehicle manufacturers, real estate developers, fleet management companies, and charger manufacturers to stimulate the proliferation of BEVs in Malaysia. TNB is also providing digital platform services for interoperability to enhance user experience and creating awareness programs to encourage adoption among public users.

TNB's efforts to drive the EV industry in Malaysia are commendable and will play a key role in the country's transition to a more sustainable transportation sector. By investing in public charging infrastructure, working to standardize safety features of charging stations, and advocating for EV-friendly policies, TNB is helping to make EV ownership more feasible and accessible to Malaysians. Additionally, TNB's partnerships with EV ecosystem players and its focus on developing the EV ecosystem will help to create new jobs and stimulate economic growth in Malaysia. At the same time, TNB plans to gradually electrify its fleet of 4,217 vehicles.

4. e-ToU for EV Charging

The TNB e-ToU scheme, also known as the enhanced Time-of-Use pricing structure, is an electricity tariff system designed to encourage more efficient electricity usage by charging customers varying rates for electricity consumption based on the time of day. Through the establishment of e-ToU for commercial tariff scheme, the EV Charger available at service apartment, retail complex, shopping malls, offices and other commercial areas are applicable for the e-ToU scheme thus enabling e-ToU for EV Charging. Detailed information on TNB e-ToU can be found in Part 7(C) as well as in this link.

 

5 (E). TNB’S EV FLEET

We also have several EV Fleet projects in the pipeline:

1. Project 1: EV Bus

We have deployed EV buses for mass transportation of students around the UNITEN campus in Bangi, as well as transporting TNB staff around Klang Valley. 

Project Status: Completed.

  • Four (4) units of EV Buses purchased i.e. two (2) units of EV Buses currently in operation at UNITEN and two (2) units of EV Buses currently in operation at TNB HQ.

2. Project 2: EV Corporate / Pool Vehicles

We have gradually begun the replacement of our corporate pool vehicles with EVs as part of our GHG emission reduction initiatives in supporting Green Technology.

Project Status:

  • Six (6) EV Cars purchased

a) Three (3) units of Tesla Model S are currently in Operation at TNB HQ
b) Two (2) units of Nissan Leaf are currently in Operation at TNB HQ and
c) One (1) unit of Nissan Leaf is currently in Operation at TNB Langkawi.

  • Three (3) EV Vans purchased

a) One (1) unit of EV Passenger Van                                       
b) One (1) unit of EV Panel Van
c) One (1) unit of EV Semi Panel Van

  • Two (2) Units of EVs are currently under delivery processes

a) One (1) unit EV Passenger Van
b) One (1) unit EV Semi Panel Van

  • Twenty-one (21) units of EVs are currently under procurement process                                     

a) a) One (1) unit EV Car                                                                     
b) Sixteen (16) units of EV Semi Panel Van                            
c) Four (4) units of EV Panel Van                            

3, Project 3: EV Operational Vehicles

We have also introduced Operational Electric Vehicles as part of a pilot study to analyze the advantages and limitations of using EVs in TNB Operations.

Project status :

  • Two (2) units of EV Operational Vehicles are currently in pilot study and One (1) unit is currently under delivery process
  • 82 units of EVs Pick Up are currently under manufacturing and delivery process

Commercial EV Facilitation

We have signed three (3) Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) on low carbon mobility ventures managed by TNB’s Retail team with:

  1. Sime Darby Motors Malaysia: To collaborate on exploring various initiatives to accelerate the adoption of EVs.
  2. DHL : TNB will install EV charging stations along DHL’s key service routes, which will advance the electrification of DHL’s fleet.
  3. SOCAR Mobility Malaysia (SOCAR): To leverage shared demand data on EV usage in Malaysia, as a joint effort to speed up the adoption of EVs, in support of Malaysia’s low carbon mobility ambitions. TNB will leverage SOCAR’s data on vehicle usage and travel behavior, which shall be used to identify key strategic locations along travel routes for the installation of charging infrastructure.

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Cyber Security Measures

Digitalizing a grid opens it to the possibility of cyber threats, and thus requires protective measures to keep the power supply uninterrupted, and your data secured.
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DIMENSION 6: CYBER SECURITY

6 (A). IT AND OT CYBERSECURITY

TNB has taken a proactive stance to enhance the cyber resilience of its IT and OT systems, achieving international ISO/IEC 27001:2013 Information Security Management System (ISMS) certification across various domains, encompassing our power generation, transmission, distribution, and digital systems. These domains include crucial components such as the Distributed Control System (DCS) in power plants, the SCADA system in our Control Centre, and the ICT data center. To ensure TNB’s cyber security always complied to the ISO/IEC 27001:2013, TNB annually renews its certification as required by Energy Commission. For 2023, TNB has successfully passed SIRIM Audit on its compliance to ISO/IEC 27001:2013 on 10 November 2023.

Furthermore, we've been unwavering in our commitment to bolster online payment security through adherence to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) certification. In alignment with this certification, TNB diligently conducts both internal and external audits within the scope of the certification on a routine basis.

Our dedication to securing smart meters and AMI systems is evident in the meticulous application of industry best practices, typified by the Device Language Message Specification/Companion Specification for Energy Metering (DLMS/COSEM (IEC 62056)). This protocol adopts NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) standards for authentication and data security, employing tried-and-true cryptographic algorithms. The DLMS protocol has proven itself indispensable, accommodating an expanding array of data and functions necessitated by the evolving energy market and smart grid. These range from asset management and outage management to demand response, supply automation, contract management, power quality monitoring, net metering for renewable energy integration, and non-technical loss detection.

In the realm of Advanced Distributed Management System (ADMS), our focus remains on adhering to requisite OT cybersecurity standards. This includes compliance with pertinent sections of the IEC 62351 and configuration of the ADMS according to security hardening best practices in line with recommendations from respected standards, such as NIST, NERC CIP, ISA/IEC 62443, and IEEE Standard Cyber Security Requirements for Substation Automation, Protection, and Control Systems. We consistently apply industry best practices for system hardening to each OT component.

Our commitment to cybersecurity has not gone unnoticed, earning us accolades and recognition:

  • "Cyber Security Project of the Year 2019" at the Malaysia Cyber Security Awards 2019 presented by Cybersecurity Malaysia.
  • Inclusion in the "Share Guide Association Malaysia (SGAM) IT Users Group" at the SGAM ICT Conference & Awards 2019 by SGAM.

These accolades stand as testament to our unwavering commitment to upholding the highest cybersecurity standards across our operations against the cyber threats towards the benefits to TNB, Rakyat and Negara.

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Customer Empowerment and Satisfaction

Being in touch with our consumer’s needs is vital to ensure the grid functions and behaves in a smarter manner.
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DIMENSION 7: CUSTOMER EMPOWERMENT AND SATISFACTION

7 (A). CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INDEX 2022

Customer Satisfaction Survey has been conducted for the past 27 years to monitor overall performance of TNB’s products and services. TNB maintained an Excellent Customer Satisfaction Index of 87% over two consecutive years. Customers has given high ratings on TNB’s self-service kiosk, reliability and quality of electricity supply and ease of making payment. This achievement is a result to our commitment in delivering Exceptional Service and Exceeding Customer Expectations.

Figure 7A.1: Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) score

 

7 (B). AMI CUSTOMER OFFERING

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an integrated system of smart meters, communication networks and data management systems that enable the two-way communication of data between TNB and customers. Hence, AMI is paving the way for customers to enjoy more smart features and benefits as part of their daily living and energy consumption, in addition to enhancing operational efficiencies for TNB in the times to come as the customer offerings are being rolled out in phases.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) pertains to a comprehensive system that combines smart meters, communication networks, and data management systems. This integrated system facilitates bidirectional data communication between TNB and its customers. As a result, AMI is ushering in a new era where customers can experience a range of intelligent features and advantages in their daily lives and energy usage. Simultaneously, it is set to enhance TNB's operational efficiencies as customer offerings are progressively introduced.

As of October 2023, the customer offerings and benefits that have been rolled out from AMI implementation are as below:

1. Actual and Timely Electricity Bill

Smart meter gives actual readings in 30 minutes interval; hence no site meter reading by meter reader is required. Timely electricity bill will be available in myTNB web portal and app.

2. Manage Electricity Consumption using daily profile via myTNB Web Portal and Mobile App

Smart Meter customers could view detailed information on their energy consumption (down to 30 minutes’ interval) and electricity bills through myTNB web portal and mobile application, which empower customers to better manage their electricity usage and be more energy efficient.

3. Energy Budget

Customers will receive alert notification via myTNB mobile application once they have reached the energy usage threshold limit set earlier. This feature empowers customers to manage their energy lifestyle better by allowing them to be more aware and purposeful in their energy usage from time to time, which will contribute to savings in their electricity bills.

4. Power Outage Notification - Notification of electricity supply interruption & restoration

Customers will receive timely information on power outages and updates on when power will be restored via myTNB App instead of calling TNB Careline to obtain update on the electricity supply situation. Hence, notification on supply disruption will reduce the complaints and enquiries from customers.

Upcoming AMI features include:
5. Time of Use (ToU)

This feature provides customers the choice to opt for ToU tariffs, which offer different pricing throughout various periods in a day e.g. peak, mid-peak and off-peak periods via Interval Billing Mechanism (IBM).  As a result, customers could manage their energy usage according to the different tariffs offered in a day and enjoy reduction in monthly bills by shifting consumption to off-peak hours. Besides, with TOU implementation, the overall energy demand during peak-periods is reduced – resulting in lowered strain on grid infrastructure, increased energy efficiency and reduced customer impact.

6. Faster Power Reconnection (Move in Move Out) Remote Energisation and De-Energisation

With this feature, customers could connect and disconnect power supply remotely while moving in or out of their houses, and hence reducing the time for supply reconnection from up to 3 days by conventional method to within a day using smart meters – greatly enhancing existing customer experience. Customer could also choose the time and date at their convenience for connection and disconnection.

7. Smart Payment

This feature helps customers to control their energy consumption by empowering them to manage their energy budget and spending. Flexible Payment Scheme also enables the premise owner to control energy usage at rented premise and reduce the risk of unpaid bill by the tenant. It allows customer to opt for flexible payment options such as post-paid or prepaid plans. Besides, customers could top-up credit online without visiting a pay-point.

 

7 (C). ENHANCED TIME OF USE (E-TOU) OFFERING FOR INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AGRICULTURE AND MINING

The TNB e-ToU (Enhanced Time-of-Use) scheme, also known as the enhanced Time-of-Use pricing structure, is an electricity tariff system designed to encourage more efficient electricity usage by charging customers varying rates for electricity consumption based on the time of day. Here's how the TNB e- ToU scheme typically works for commercial, industrial, agriculture and mining customers:

1. Peak, Off-Peak, and Shoulder Periods

Under the e-ToU scheme, different times of the day are categorized into three periods:

  • Peak Period: This is typically the time when electricity demand is highest, often during the day when commercial and industrial activities are at their peak.
  • Off-Peak Period: This is the time when electricity demand is lowest, often during late night and early morning hours when most people are not using much power.
  • Mid-Peak Period: This is the intermediate period, falling between the peak and off-peak periods.
2. Variable Pricing.

During each of these periods, the electricity rates are set at different levels. Typically, the rates are higher during peak hours and lower during off-peak hours, with shoulder period rates falling in between.

Table 7C.1: E-ToU Time Zone

Figure 7C.1: e-ToU Time Zones

 

3. Customer Choice

Customers who opt for the ToU scheme can choose to shift some of their energy-intensive activities to off-peak hours to take advantage of lower electricity rates. For instance, they may choose to run heavy appliances like washing machines or dishwashers during off-peak hours to reduce their electricity costs.

4. Benefits and Incentives

The ToU scheme encourages energy conservation and load-shifting, which can lead to reduced electricity bills for customers who adapt their usage patterns to align with lower-rate periods. It also helps to better distribute the demand for electricity throughout the day, which can have positive effects on the stability of the electrical grid.

5. Metering Technology

To implement the ToU scheme, advanced metering technology, such as smart meters, may be installed at customers' premises. These meters record the electricity consumption at different times, allowing for accurate billing based on the ToU rates.

Detailed information on TNB ToU can be found in this link.

 

7 (D). CUSTOMER PORTALS

MYTNB APPLICATION AND PORTAL

MyTNB is an online platform or mobile app that allows customers to access a range of services related to their electricity accounts and consumption. Currently, 6.65mn customers are connected to myTNB. Here are some common features and services provided through myTNB:

1. Bill Payment

Customers can pay their electricity bills conveniently through the platform. They can view their current and previous bills, make payments online, and receive electronic receipts.

2. Account Management

MyTNB enables users to manage their TNB accounts, update their contact information, and monitor their electricity consumption history.

3. Consumption Analysis

The platform often provides tools and features that allow customers to analyze their electricity consumption patterns, helping them make informed decisions to reduce energy usage and costs.

4. Notifications and Alerts

Customers can receive notifications about billing, power outage updates, and other important information related to their electricity supply.

5. Meter Reading Submission

In some cases, customers may be able to submit their own meter readings, which can be helpful for accurate billing.

6. Energy Efficiency Tips

MyTNB may offer energy-saving tips and suggestions to help customers reduce their energy consumption and lower their electricity bills.

7. Customer Support

Users can contact TNB customer support through the platform for inquiries, complaints, or assistance with any electricity-related issues.

 

MyTNB is designed to enhance the customer experience by providing convenient, self-service options for managing electricity accounts and understanding energy consumption. It helps customers stay informed and in control of their electricity usage and billing, promoting more efficient energy use and better customer service.

 

Figure 7D.1: myTNB Portal

 

UPCOMING PORTALS FOR CUSTOMERS (IN DEVELOPMENT)

1. SEMI’S CUSTOMER SELF-SERVICE PORTAL

Customer empowerment lies at the core of our Smart Energy Management Infrastructure Project. The Customer Self-Service Portal will provide end-users with intuitive tools to monitor and manage their energy consumption, track renewable energy contributions, and access personalized energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, the portal will facilitate easy enrolment in demand-response programs and time-of-use tariffs, encouraging customers to actively participate in energy conservation efforts while benefitting from potential cost savings. The initiative takes inspiration from successful initiatives like the Green Button program in New Zealand. By providing end-users with user-friendly tools and personalized insights, we empower energy consumers to actively manage their energy consumption, track their renewable energy contributions, and access energy efficiency recommendations.

The benefit of this portal is as below:

Energy conservation and cost savings

The portal enables consumers to monitor and optimize their energy usage, resulting in reduced energy consumption, lower bills, and cost savings.

Increased awareness and engagement

By providing real-time energy data and personalized insights, the portal raises consumer awareness about their energy footprint, fostering behavioural changes and encouraging energy-conscious habits.

Participation in energy programs

The portal simplifies enrolment in demand-response programs, time-of-use tariffs, and other energy initiatives, enabling consumers to actively participate in energy conservation efforts and contribute to grid stability.

 

2. CUSTOMER DIGITAL APPOINTMENT SCHEDULER (CDA)

Customer Digital Appointment Scheduler project is an enhancement to the existing Mobility for Meter Management System (3MS) and ongoing Metering Digital Control Tower project that will enable end-to-end customer digitalization initiatives related to individual OPC new meter installation:

  • To empower customer experiences by allowing them to make and reschedule appointment for new meter installation in myTNB app and portal. There is currently no proper functionality to handle customer appointments. Customer Service and customer have no visibility on the availability of TNB’s metering field crew while making an appointment. This enhancement will be able to give visibility to the availability of the field crew enabling customers to make an appointment from myTNB App thus improving customer experience.
  • The objective of the change is to ultimately increase customer satisfaction by keeping and improving TNB’s Service Level Agreement compliance on MSL 3c. This project will provide customer empowerment to select appointment date and time for individual OPC new meter installation. Besides that, effective schedule and service order planning also will optimize workforce and team productivity.

Features for Customer Digital Appointment Scheduler:

Figure 7D.2: CDA to-be functions

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